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San Francisco

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San Francisco
Ciudad y condado de San Francisco
San Francisco from the Marin Headlands
San Francisco desde Marin Headlands
Apodo (s): 
Lema (s): 
Oro en Paz, Fierro en Guerra (español)
(inglés: "Gold in Peace, Iron in War")
Himno: Dejé mi corazón en San Francisco [2]
San Francisco is located in San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco
San Francisco
San Francisco is located in California
San Francisco
San Francisco
Ubicación dentro de California
San Francisco is located in the United States
San Francisco
San Francisco
Ubicación dentro de los Estados Unidos contiguos
San Francisco is located in North America
San Francisco
San Francisco
Ubicación dentro de América del Norte
Coordenadas: 37 ° 46′39 ″ N 122 ° 24′59 ″ W / 37.77750°N 122.41639°W / 37.77750; -122.41639 Coordenadas : 37 ° 46′39 ″ N 122 ° 24′59 ″ W  / 37.77750°N 122.41639°W / 37.77750; -122.41639
PaísEstados Unidos
ExpresarCalifornia
condadoSan Francisco
CSASan José – San Francisco – Oakland
MetroSan Francisco – Oakland – Hayward
Misión29 de junio de 1776 [3]
Incorporado15 de abril de 1850 [4]
Fundado porJosé Joaquín Moraga
Francisco Palóu
Nombrado paraSan Francisco de Asís
Gobierno
 • TipoAlcalde-consejo
 • CuerpoJunta de supervisores
 •  AlcaldeLondon Breed ( D ) [5]
 •  Supervisores [7]
Lista
  • Connie Chan (D)
  • Catherine Stefani (D)
  • Aaron Peskin (D)
  • Gordon Mar (D)
  • Dean Preston (D)
  • Matt Haney (D)
  • Myrna Melgar (D)
  • Rafael Mandelman (D)
  • Hillary Ronen (D)
  • Shamann Walton (D)
  • Ahsha Safaí (D)
 •  Asambleístas [8] [9]David Chiu ( D )
Phil Ting ( D )
 •  Senador estatalScott Wiener ( D ) [6]
 •  Representantes de Estados Unidos [10] [11]Nancy Pelosi ( D )
Jackie Speier ( D )
Área
[12]
 • Ciudad y condado231,91 millas cuadradas (600,65 km 2 )
 • Tierra46,91 millas cuadradas (121,51 km 2 )
 • Agua185,00 millas cuadradas (479,15 km 2 ) 80,00%
 • Metro
9,128 km 2 (3,524.4 millas cuadradas )
Elevación
[13]
52 pies (16 m)
Elevación más alta
[14]
934 pies (285 m)
Elevación más baja
[14]
0 pies (0 m)
Población
 ( 2010 ) [15]
 • Ciudad y condado805,235
 • Estimación 
(2019) [16]
881,549
 • Rango4 ° en California
16 ° en Estados Unidos
 • Densidad18,790.74 / mi sq (7,255.12 / km 2 )
 •  Metro
4.729.484 ( 12º )
 •  CSA
9,666,055 ( quinto )
Demonym (s)San franciscano
San Francisqueño / a
Zona horariaUTC − 8 ( zona horaria del Pacífico )
 • Verano ( DST )UTC-7 ( hora de verano del Pacífico )
Códigos postales [17]
Lista
  • 94102–94105
  • 94107–94112
  • 94114–94134
  • 94137
  • 94139–94147
  • 94151
  • 94158–94161
  • 94163–94164
  • 94172
  • 94177
  • 94188
Códigos de área415/628 [18]
Código FIPS06-67000
ID de funciones de GNIS277593 , 2411786
PIB (2019) [19]Ciudad: $ 203.5 mil millones

MSA - $ 591,9 mil millones (cuarto)

CSA - $ 1.086 billones (3 °)
Sitio websf .gov

San Francisco ( / ˌ s æ n f r ə n s ɪ s k oʊ / ; español para " San Francisco "), oficialmente la Ciudad y Condado de San Francisco , es un centro cultural, comercial, financiera y en el norte de California . San Francisco es la decimosexta ciudad más poblada de los Estados Unidos y la cuarta más poblada de California , con 881.549 residentes en 2019. [15] Cubre un área de aproximadamente 46,89 millas cuadradas (121,4 km 2 ),[20] principalmente en el extremo norte de la península de San Francisco en el área de la bahía de San Francisco , lo que la convierte en la segunda ciudad grande más densamente poblada de EE. UU. Y el quinto condado de EE. UU. Más densamente poblado , solo detrás de cuatro de los cinco distritos de la ciudad de Nueva York . San Francisco es parte de la duodécima área estadística metropolitana más grande de los Estados Unidos por población, con 4.7 millones de personas, y la cuarta más grande por producción económica, con un PIB de $ 592 mil millones en 2019. [21] Con San José , se forma la quinta área estadística combinada más pobladaen los Estados Unidos, con 9,67 millones de residentes en 2019. Los apodos coloquiales para San Francisco incluyen SF , San Fran , The City y Frisco . [22] [23]

En 2019, San Francisco fue el condado con el séptimo ingreso más alto en los Estados Unidos, con un ingreso per cápita de $ 139,405. [24] En el mismo año, San Francisco propiamente dicho tenía un PIB de $ 203.5 mil millones y un PIB per cápita de $ 230.829. [21] [25] La CSA San Francisco comparte con San José y Oakland , con un PIB de $ 1.09 billones a partir de 2019, es la tercera economía urbana más grande del país, después de la ciudad de Nueva York y Los Ángeles . [26] De las 105 áreas estadísticas primarias en los EE. UU. Con más de 500,000 residentes, esta CSA tuvo el PIB per cápita más alto en 2019, con $ 112,348. [26]San Francisco ocupó el puesto 12 en el mundo y el segundo en los Estados Unidos en el Índice de Centros Financieros Globales en marzo de 2021, después de la ciudad de Nueva York. [27]

San Francisco fue fundada el 29 de junio de 1776, cuando colonos de España establecieron el Presidio de San Francisco en el Golden Gate y la Misión San Francisco de Asís a pocas millas de distancia, ambos nombrados en honor a Francisco de Asís . [3] La fiebre del oro de California de 1849 trajo un rápido crecimiento, convirtiéndola en la ciudad más grande de la costa oeste en ese momento. San Francisco se convirtió en una ciudad-condado consolidada en 1856. [28] El estatus de San Francisco como la ciudad más grande de la costa oeste alcanzó su punto máximo entre 1870 y 1900, cuando alrededor del 25% de la población de California residía en la ciudad propiamente dicha. [29]Después de que las tres cuartas partes de la ciudad fueran destruidas por el terremoto y el incendio de 1906 , [30] San Francisco fue rápidamente reconstruida, albergando la Exposición Internacional Panamá-Pacífico nueve años más tarde. En la Segunda Guerra Mundial , San Francisco fue un importante puerto de embarque para los miembros del servicio que enviaban al Pacific Theatre . [31] Luego se convirtió en el lugar de nacimiento de las Naciones Unidas en 1945. [32] [33] [34] Después de la guerra, la confluencia de militares que regresaron, una inmigración significativa , actitudes liberalizadoras , junto con el surgimiento del " beatnik " y "Las contraculturas hippies , la Revolución Sexual , el Movimiento por la Paz que surgió de la oposición a la participación de Estados Unidos en la Guerra de Vietnam y otros factores llevaron al Verano del Amor y al movimiento por los derechos de los homosexuales , consolidando a San Francisco como un centro de activismo liberal en los Estados Unidos. Estados : Políticamente, la ciudad vota fuertemente a lo largo de las líneas del Partido Demócrata liberal .

Un destino turístico popular, [35] San Francisco es conocido por sus veranos frescos, niebla , colinas empinadas, mezcla ecléctica de arquitectura y lugares emblemáticos, como el puente Golden Gate , los teleféricos , la antigua Penitenciaría Federal de Alcatraz , Fisherman's Wharf y su distrito de Chinatown . San Francisco es también la sede de empresas como Twitter , Square , Airbnb , Levi Strauss & Co. , Gap Inc. , Salesforce , Dropbox ,Pacific Gas and Electric Company , Uber y Lyft . La ciudad, y el área de la bahía circundante, es un centro mundial de las ciencias y las artes [36] [37] y alberga una serie de instituciones educativas y culturales, como la Universidad de California, San Francisco (UCSF), la Universidad de San Francisco (USF), Universidad Estatal de San Francisco (SFSU), el Museo de Young , el Museo de Arte Moderno de San Francisco , el Centro SFJAZZ y la Academia de Ciencias de California .

Historia [ editar ]

Pueblos Yelamu en San Francisco
Afiliaciones históricas
Imperio español 1776–1821 Primer Imperio mexicano 1821–1823 Estados Unidos Mexicanos 1823–1848 Estados Unidos 1848-presente


 
Misión San Francisco de Asís (Misión Dolores)

La evidencia arqueológica más antigua de habitación humana en el territorio de la ciudad de San Francisco data del 3000 a. C. [38] El grupo Yelamu del pueblo Ohlone residía en algunas pequeñas aldeas cuando un grupo de exploración español por tierra , dirigido por Don Gaspar de Portolá , llegó el 2 de noviembre de 1769, la primera visita europea documentada a la bahía de San Francisco . [39] La primera presencia marítima se produjo el 5 de agosto de 1775, cuando el San Carlos, comandado por Juan Manuel de Ayala, se convirtió en el primer barco que fondeó en la bahía. [40] Al año siguiente, el 28 de marzo de 1776, los españoles establecieron elPresidio de San Francisco , seguido de una misión , Misión San Francisco de Asís (Misión Dolores), establecida por el explorador español Juan Bautista de Anza . [3]

Tras la independencia de España en 1821, el área pasó a formar parte de México . Bajo el dominio mexicano, el sistema de misiones terminó gradualmente y sus tierras se privatizaron . En 1835, William Richardson , un ciudadano mexicano naturalizado de nacimiento inglés, erigió la primera casa independiente, [41] cerca de un fondeadero en torno a lo que hoy es Portsmouth Square . Junto con el alcalde Francisco de Haro , trazó un plan de calles para el asentamiento ampliado, y el pueblo, llamado Yerba Buena , comenzó a atraer colonos estadounidenses. El comodoro John D. Sloat reclamó California para los Estados Unidos el 7 de julio de 1846, durante laGuerra México-Estadounidense , y el capitán John B. Montgomery llegaron para reclamar Yerba Buena dos días después. Yerba Buena pasó a llamarse San Francisco el 30 de enero del año siguiente, y México cedió oficialmente el territorio a Estados Unidos al final de la guerra en 1848 . A pesar de su atractiva ubicación como puerto y base naval, San Francisco seguía siendo un pequeño asentamiento con una geografía inhóspita. [42]

Puerto de San Francisco en 1851

La fiebre del oro de California trajo una avalancha de buscadores de tesoros (conocidos como "cuarenta y nueve", como en "1849"). Con su pan de masa madre a cuestas, [43] los buscadores se acumularon en San Francisco sobre su rival Benicia , [44] elevando la población de 1.000 en 1848 a 25.000 en diciembre de 1849. [45] La promesa de una gran riqueza era tan fuerte que las tripulaciones al llegar los barcos desertaron y se apresuraron a ir a los campos de oro, dejando atrás un bosque de mástiles en el puerto de San Francisco. [46]Algunos de estos aproximadamente 500 barcos abandonados se utilizaron en ocasiones como almacenes, salones y hoteles; muchos se pudrieron y algunos se hundieron para establecer el título del lote submarino. En 1851, el puerto se extendió hacia la bahía mediante muelles, mientras que los edificios se erigieron sobre pilotes entre los barcos. Para 1870, Yerba Buena Cove se había llenado para crear nuevas tierras. Los barcos enterrados se exponen ocasionalmente cuando se excavan los cimientos para nuevos edificios. [47]

A California se le concedió rápidamente la condición de estado en 1850, y el ejército estadounidense construyó Fort Point en el Golden Gate y un fuerte en la isla de Alcatraz para asegurar la bahía de San Francisco. Los descubrimientos de plata, incluido el Comstock Lode en Nevada en 1859, impulsaron aún más el rápido crecimiento de la población. [48] Con hordas de buscadores de fortuna fluyendo por la ciudad, la anarquía era común, y la sección de la ciudad de la Costa de Berbería ganó notoriedad como un refugio para los criminales, la prostitución y los juegos de azar. [49]

Los empresarios buscaron capitalizar la riqueza generada por la fiebre del oro. Los primeros ganadores fueron la industria bancaria, con la fundación de Wells Fargo en 1852 y el Banco de California en 1864. Desarrollo del puerto de San Francisco y el establecimiento en 1869 del acceso por tierra al sistema ferroviario del este de los Estados Unidos a través del recién terminado Pacific Railroad. (La construcción de la cual la ciudad sólo ayudó a sustentar a regañadientes [50] ) ayudó a hacer del Área de la Bahía un centro para el comercio. Atendiendo a las necesidades y gustos de la creciente población, Levi Strauss abrió un negocio de productos secos y Domingo Ghirardellicomenzó a fabricar chocolate. Los inmigrantes chinos hicieron de la ciudad una cultura políglota, atraídos por "Old Gold Mountain", creando el barrio chino de la ciudad . En 1870, los asiáticos constituían el 8% de la población. [51] Los primeros teleféricos llevaron a los habitantes de San Francisco por Clay Street en 1873. El mar de casas victorianas de la ciudad comenzó a tomar forma, y ​​los líderes cívicos hicieron campaña por un espacioso parque público, lo que resultó en planes para el Golden Gate Park . Los habitantes de San Francisco construyeron escuelas, iglesias, teatros y todas las señas de identidad de la vida cívica. El Presidio se convirtió en la instalación militar estadounidense más importante de la costa del Pacífico. [52]En 1890, la población de San Francisco se acercó a 300.000 habitantes, lo que la convirtió en la octava ciudad más grande de los Estados Unidos en ese momento. Alrededor de 1901, San Francisco era una ciudad importante conocida por su estilo extravagante, hoteles señoriales, mansiones ostentosas en Nob Hill y una escena artística próspera. [53] La primera epidemia de peste en América del Norte fue la plaga de San Francisco de 1900-1904 . [54]

A las 5:12 am del 18 de abril de 1906, un gran terremoto sacudió San Francisco y el norte de California. Cuando los edificios se derrumbaron por el temblor, las líneas de gas rotas provocaron incendios que se extendieron por la ciudad y se descontrolaron durante varios días. Con las tuberías de agua fuera de servicio, el Cuerpo de Artillería de Presidio intentó contener el infierno dinamitando bloques de edificios para crear cortafuegos. [55] Más de las tres cuartas partes de la ciudad estaban en ruinas, incluido casi todo el centro de la ciudad. [30] Las cuentas contemporáneas informaron que 498 personas perdieron la vida, aunque las estimaciones modernas sitúan el número en varios miles. [56]Más de la mitad de los 400.000 habitantes de la ciudad se quedó sin hogar. [57] Los refugiados se establecieron temporalmente en aldeas de tiendas de campaña improvisadas en el Parque Golden Gate, el Presidio, en las playas y en otros lugares. Muchos huyeron permanentemente a East Bay .

"Nunca en la historia una ciudad imperial moderna ha sido tan completamente destruida. San Francisco se ha ido". - Jack London después del terremoto y el incendio de 1906 [58]
El Palacio de Bellas Artes en la Exposición Panamá-Pacífico de 1915

La reconstrucción fue rápida y se realizó a gran escala. Rechazando las llamadas para rehacer completamente la cuadrícula de las calles, los habitantes de San Francisco optaron por la velocidad. [59] El Banco de Italia de Amadeo Giannini , que más tarde se convertiría en el Banco de América , proporcionó préstamos para muchos de aquellos cuyos medios de vida habían sido devastados. La influyente Asociación de Planificación e Investigación Urbana de San Francisco o SPUR se fundó en 1910 para abordar la calidad de la vivienda después del terremoto. [60] El terremoto aceleró el desarrollo de los vecindarios occidentales que sobrevivieron al incendio, incluido Pacific Heights , donde muchos de los ricos de la ciudad reconstruyeron sus casas. [61]A su vez, las mansiones destruidas de Nob Hill se convirtieron en grandes hoteles. El Ayuntamiento se levantó de nuevo con un espléndido estilo Beaux Arts , y la ciudad celebró su renacimiento en la Exposición Internacional Panamá-Pacífico de 1915. [62]

Fue durante este período que San Francisco construyó algunas de sus infraestructuras más importantes. El ingeniero civil Michael O'Shaughnessy fue contratado por el alcalde de San Francisco James Rolph como ingeniero jefe de la ciudad en septiembre de 1912 para supervisar la construcción del embalse Twin Peaks, el túnel de Stockton Street , el túnel de Twin Peaks , el ferrocarril municipal de San Francisco , el Sistema de suministro de agua auxiliar y alcantarillado nuevo. El sistema de tranvías de San Francisco, de los cuales el J , K , L , M y Nlíneas sobreviven hoy en día, fue empujado hasta su finalización por O'Shaughnessy entre 1915 y 1927. Fue la presa de O'Shaughnessy , Hetch Hetchy y Hetch Hetchy acueducto que tendría el mayor efecto sobre San Francisco. [63] Un abundante suministro de agua permitió que San Francisco se convirtiera en la ciudad en la que se ha convertido hoy.

El puente de la bahía , en construcción en 1935, tardó cuarenta meses en completarse.

En los años siguientes, la ciudad consolidó su posición como capital financiera; a raíz de la caída del mercado de valores de 1929 , ni un solo banco con sede en San Francisco quebró. [64] De hecho, fue en el apogeo de la Gran Depresión que San Francisco emprendió dos grandes proyectos de ingeniería civil, construyendo simultáneamente el Puente San Francisco-Oakland Bay y el Puente Golden Gate , completándolos en 1936 y 1937, respectivamente. Fue en este período que la isla de Alcatraz , una antigua empalizada militar, comenzó su servicio como prisión federal de máxima seguridad, albergando a presos notorios como Al Capone y Robert Franklin Stroud., el Hombre Pájaro de Alcatraz. Más tarde, San Francisco celebró su grandeza recuperada con una feria mundial , la Exposición Internacional Golden Gate en 1939-1940, creando Treasure Island en el medio de la bahía para albergarla. [ cita requerida ]

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial , el Astillero Naval de Hunters Point se convirtió en un centro de actividad, y Fort Mason se convirtió en el principal puerto de embarque para los miembros del servicio que se embarcaban en el Teatro de Operaciones del Pacífico . [31] La explosión de puestos de trabajo atrajo a muchas personas, especialmente afroamericanos del sur , a la zona. Después del final de la guerra, muchos militares que regresaban del servicio en el extranjero y los civiles que originalmente habían venido a trabajar decidieron quedarse. La Carta de las Naciones Unidas por la que se crean las Naciones Unidas fue redactada y firmada en San Francisco en 1945 y, en 1951, el Tratado de San Francisco.restableció las relaciones pacíficas entre Japón y las potencias aliadas . [sesenta y cinco]

Los proyectos de planificación urbana en las décadas de 1950 y 1960 involucraron la destrucción generalizada y el redesarrollo de vecindarios del lado oeste y la construcción de nuevas autopistas, de las cuales solo se construyeron una serie de segmentos cortos antes de ser detenidos por la oposición liderada por los ciudadanos . [66] El inicio de la contenedorización hizo obsoletos los pequeños muelles de San Francisco, y la actividad de carga se trasladó al puerto más grande de Oakland . [67] La ciudad comenzó a perder puestos de trabajo industriales y se volvió hacia el turismo como el segmento más importante de su economía. [68]Los suburbios experimentaron un rápido crecimiento y San Francisco experimentó un cambio demográfico significativo, ya que grandes segmentos de la población blanca abandonaron la ciudad, suplantados por una creciente ola de inmigración de Asia y América Latina. [69] [70] De 1950 a 1980, la ciudad perdió más del 10 por ciento de su población.

La Pirámide Transamérica fue el edificio más alto de San Francisco hasta 2016, cuando Salesforce Torre lo superó.

Durante este período, San Francisco se convirtió en un imán para la contracultura estadounidense . Los escritores de Beat Generation impulsaron el Renacimiento de San Francisco y se centraron en el vecindario de North Beach en la década de 1950. [71] Los hippies acudieron en masa a Haight-Ashbury en la década de 1960, alcanzando un pico con el Summer of Love de 1967 . [72] En 1974, los asesinatos de Zebra dejaron al menos 16 muertos. [73] En la década de 1970, la ciudad se convirtió en un centro del movimiento por los derechos de los homosexuales , con el surgimiento de The Castro como un pueblo gay urbano., la elección de Harvey Milk para la Junta de Supervisores , y su asesinato , junto con el del alcalde George Moscone , en 1978. [74]

Bank of America completó 555 California Street en 1969 y la Pirámide Transamerica se completó en 1972, [75] encendiendo una ola de " Manhattanización " que duró hasta finales de la década de 1980, un período de extenso desarrollo de rascacielos en el centro de la ciudad. [76] La década de 1980 también vio un aumento dramático en el número de personas sin hogar en la ciudad, un problema que permanece hoy, a pesar de muchos intentos de abordarlo. [77] El terremoto de Loma Prieta en 1989 causó destrucción y pérdida de vidas en todo el Área de la Bahía. En San Francisco, el terremoto dañó severamente estructuras en la Marina y South of Marketdistritos y precipitó la demolición de la dañada Embarcadero Freeway y gran parte de la dañada Central Freeway , lo que permitió a la ciudad recuperar El Embarcadero como su histórico paseo marítimo en el centro y revitalizar el vecindario de Hayes Valley . [ cita requerida ]

Dos décadas recientes han visto dos auges impulsados ​​por la industria de Internet. Primero fue el auge de las puntocom de finales de la década de 1990, las empresas emergentes vigorizaron la economía de San Francisco. Un gran número de empresarios y desarrolladores de aplicaciones informáticas se trasladaron a la ciudad, seguidos por profesionales de marketing, diseño y ventas, cambiando el panorama social a medida que los vecindarios que alguna vez fueron más pobres se aburrieron cada vez más . [78] La demanda de nuevas viviendas y oficinas encendió una segunda ola de desarrollo de rascacielos, esta vez en el distrito Sur de Market. [79]Para el año 2000, la población de la ciudad alcanzó nuevos máximos, superando el récord anterior establecido en 1950. Cuando estalló la burbuja en 2001, muchas de estas empresas cerraron y sus empleados fueron despedidos. Sin embargo, la alta tecnología y el espíritu empresarial siguen siendo los pilares de la economía de San Francisco. A mediados de la década de 2000 (década), había comenzado el auge de las redes sociales , y San Francisco se convirtió en un lugar popular para las oficinas de tecnología y un lugar común para vivir para las personas empleadas en empresas de Silicon Valley como Apple y Google . [80]

The Ferry Station Post Office Building, Armour & Co. Building, Atherton House, and YMCA Hotel are historic buildings among dozens of historical landmarks in the city according to the National Register of Historic Places listings in San Francisco.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

The San Francisco Peninsula

San Francisco se encuentra en la costa oeste de los Estados Unidos en el extremo norte de la península de San Francisco e incluye tramos importantes del Océano Pacífico y la Bahía de San Francisco dentro de sus límites. Varias islas pintorescas , Alcatraz , Treasure Island y la adyacente Yerba Buena Island , y pequeñas porciones de Alameda Island , Red Rock Island y Angel Island, son parte de la ciudad. También se incluyen las deshabitadas Islas Farallón., 27 millas (43 km) de la costa en el Océano Pacífico. El continente dentro de los límites de la ciudad forma aproximadamente un "cuadrado de siete por siete millas", un coloquialismo local común que se refiere a la forma de la ciudad, aunque su área total, incluida el agua, es de casi 232 millas cuadradas (600 km 2 ).

Hay más de 50 colinas dentro de los límites de la ciudad. [81] Algunos barrios llevan el nombre de la colina en la que están situados, como Nob Hill , Potrero Hill y Russian Hill . Cerca del centro geográfico de la ciudad, al suroeste del centro de la ciudad, hay una serie de colinas menos densamente pobladas. Twin Peaks , un par de colinas que forman uno de los puntos más altos de la ciudad, forma un mirador. La colina más alta de San Francisco, Mount Davidson , tiene 928 pies (283 m) de altura y está coronada con una cruz de 103 pies (31 m) construida en 1934. [82] Dominando esta área está Sutro Tower , una gran radio roja y blanca. y torre de transmisión de televisión.

Las fallas cercanas de San Andreas y Hayward son responsables de gran parte de la actividad sísmica, aunque ninguna pasa físicamente por la ciudad. La falla de San Andrés causó los terremotos de 1906 y 1989. Se producen terremotos menores con regularidad. La amenaza de grandes terremotos juega un papel importante en el desarrollo de la infraestructura de la ciudad. La ciudad construyó un sistema de suministro de agua auxiliar y ha mejorado repetidamente sus códigos de construcción, lo que requiere modificaciones para edificios más antiguos y estándares de ingeniería más altos para nuevas construcciones. [83] Sin embargo, todavía hay miles de edificios más pequeños que siguen siendo vulnerables a los daños causados ​​por el terremoto. [84]USGS ha publicado el pronóstico de terremotos de California que modela la ocurrencia de terremotos en California. [85]

San Francisco's shoreline has grown beyond its natural limits. Entire neighborhoods such as the Marina, Mission Bay, and Hunters Point, as well as large sections of the Embarcadero, sit on areas of landfill. Treasure Island was constructed from material dredged from the bay as well as material resulting from the excavation of the Yerba Buena Tunnel through Yerba Buena Island during the construction of the Bay Bridge. Such land tends to be unstable during earthquakes. The resulting soil liquefaction causes extensive damage to property built upon it, as was evidenced in the Marina district during the 1989 Terremoto de Loma Prieta . [86] La mayoría de los cursos de agua naturales de la ciudad, como Islais Creek y Mission Creek , se han construido y construido, aunque la Comisión de Servicios Públicos está estudiando propuestas para iluminar el día o restaurar algunos arroyos. [87]

Paisaje urbano [ editar ]

Vista aérea desde el oeste en abril de 2018. San Francisco se ve en primer plano, con Oakland al fondo.

Barrios [ editar ]

El barrio chino de San Francisco es el más antiguo (y uno de los más grandes) de América del Norte.

El centro histórico de San Francisco es el cuadrante noreste de la ciudad anclado por Market Street y el paseo marítimo. Es aquí donde se centra el distrito financiero , con Union Square , el principal distrito comercial y hotelero, y Tenderloin cerca. Los teleféricos llevan a los pasajeros por pendientes empinadas hasta la cima de Nob Hill , una vez el hogar de los magnates de los negocios de la ciudad, y hasta las atracciones turísticas frente al mar de Fisherman's Wharf y Pier 39 , donde muchos restaurantes ofrecen cangrejos Dungeness de una pesca aún activa. industria. También en este cuadrante están Russian Hill, a residential neighborhood with the famously crooked Lombard Street; North Beach, the city's Little Italy and the former center of the Beat Generation; and Telegraph Hill, which features Coit Tower. Abutting Russian Hill and North Beach is San Francisco's Chinatown, the oldest Chinatown in North America.[88][89][90][91] The South of Market, which was once San Francisco's industrial core, has seen significant redevelopment following the construction of Oracle Park and an infusion of startup companies. Nuevos rascacielos, lofts para trabajos en vivo y condominios salpican el área. Se está llevando a cabo un mayor desarrollo justo al sur en el área de Mission Bay , un antiguo patio de ferrocarril, que ahora tiene un segundo campus de la Universidad de California, San Francisco y Chase Center , que se inauguró en 2019 como el nuevo hogar de los Golden State Warriors. . [92]

Al oeste del centro de la ciudad, al otro lado de la avenida Van Ness , se encuentra el gran vecindario Western Addition , que se estableció con una gran población afroamericana después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial . The Western Addition generalmente se divide en vecindarios más pequeños, incluidos Hayes Valley , Fillmore y Japantown , que alguna vez fue el Japantown más grande de América del Norte, pero sufrió cuando sus residentes japoneses estadounidenses fueron expulsados ​​e internados por la fuerza durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. The Western Addition sobrevivió al terremoto de 1906 con sus victorianos en gran parte intactos, incluido el famoso "Painted Ladies ", de pie junto a Alamo Square . Al sur, cerca del centro geográfico de la ciudad, se encuentra Haight-Ashbury , famosa por su asociación con la cultura hippie de la década de 1960. [ Cita requerida ] El Haight ahora alberga algunas boutiques caras [93] y un pocas cadenas de tiendas controvertidas, [94] aunque todavía conserva cierto carácter bohemio .

Al norte de Western Addition se encuentra Pacific Heights , un vecindario próspero que presenta las casas construidas por los ricos de San Francisco a raíz del terremoto de 1906. Directamente al norte de Pacific Heights, frente al paseo marítimo, se encuentra la Marina , un vecindario popular entre los jóvenes profesionales que se construyó en gran parte en terrenos ganados a la bahía. [95]

En el cuadrante sureste de la ciudad se encuentra el Distrito de la Misión, poblado en el siglo XIX por californios e inmigrantes de clase trabajadora de Alemania, Irlanda, Italia y Escandinavia. En la década de 1910, una ola de inmigrantes centroamericanos se instaló en la Misión y, en la década de 1950, comenzaron a predominar los inmigrantes de México . [96] En años recientes, la gentrificación ha cambiado la demografía de partes de la Misión de latinos a veinteañeros profesionales. Noe Valley al suroeste y Bernal Heights al sur son cada vez más populares entre las familias jóvenes con niños. Al este de la Misión está el Cerro Potrerovecindario, un vecindario mayoritariamente residencial que cuenta con vistas panorámicas del centro de San Francisco. Al oeste de la Misión, el área históricamente conocida como Eureka Valley , ahora popularmente llamada Castro , fue una vez un área de clase trabajadora escandinava e irlandesa. Se ha convertido en el primer pueblo gay de América del Norte y ahora es el centro de la vida gay de la ciudad. [97] Situado cerca de la frontera sur de la ciudad, el distrito de Excelsior es uno de los barrios con mayor diversidad étnica de San Francisco. El Bayview-Hunters Point, predominantemente afroamericanoen el extremo sureste de la ciudad se encuentra uno de los barrios más pobres y sufre una alta tasa de delincuencia, aunque el área ha sido el foco de varios proyectos de renovación urbana revitalizantes y controvertidos .

El Ferry Building a lo largo del Embarcadero

La construcción del túnel Twin Peaks en 1918 conectó los vecindarios del suroeste con el centro de la ciudad a través del tranvía, acelerando el desarrollo de West Portal , y los prósperos Forest Hill y St. Francis Wood cercanos . Más al oeste, que se extiende hasta el Océano Pacífico y al norte hasta el Golden Gate Park, se encuentra el vasto Sunset District , una gran área de clase media con una población predominantemente asiática. [98]

El cuadrante noroeste de la ciudad contiene Richmond , también un vecindario mayoritariamente de clase media al norte del Golden Gate Park, hogar de inmigrantes de otras partes de Asia, así como de muchos inmigrantes rusos y ucranianos . Juntas, estas áreas se conocen como The Avenues . Estos dos distritos a veces se dividen en dos regiones: Outer Richmond y Outer Sunset pueden referirse a las porciones más occidentales de sus respectivos distritos y Inner Richmond e Inner Sunset pueden referirse a las porciones más orientales.

Many piers remained derelict for years until the demolition of the Embarcadero Freeway reopened the downtown waterfront, allowing for redevelopment. The centerpiece of the port, the Ferry Building, while still receiving commuter ferry traffic, has been restored and redeveloped as a gourmet marketplace.

Climate[edit]

San Francisco tiene un clima mediterráneo de verano cálido ( Köppen Csb ) característico de la costa de California, con inviernos suaves y húmedos y veranos secos. [99] El clima de San Francisco está fuertemente influenciado por las corrientes frías del Océano Pacífico en el lado oeste de la ciudad, y el agua de la Bahía de San Francisco al norte y al este. Esto modera los cambios de temperatura y produce un clima notablemente suave durante todo el año con poca variación estacional de temperatura. [ cita requerida ]

La niebla es una característica habitual de los veranos de San Francisco.

Entre las principales ciudades de EE. UU., San Francisco tiene las temperaturas medias, máximas y mínimas diarias más frías para junio, julio y agosto. [100] Durante el verano, el aire caliente ascendente en los valles interiores de California crea un área de baja presión que atrae los vientos del Pacífico Norte a través del Golden Gate, lo que crea los característicos vientos fríos y niebla de la ciudad . [101] La niebla es menos pronunciada en los vecindarios del este y durante el final del verano y principios del otoño. Como resultado, el mes más cálido del año, en promedio, es septiembre y, en promedio, octubre es más cálido que julio, especialmente durante el día.

Debido a su aguda topografía e influencias marítimas, San Francisco exhibe una multitud de microclimas distintos . Las altas colinas en el centro geográfico de la ciudad son responsables de una variación del 20% en las precipitaciones anuales entre diferentes partes de la ciudad. También protegen los vecindarios directamente al este de las condiciones de niebla y, a veces, muy frías y ventosas que se experimentan en Sunset District ; para quienes viven en el lado este de la ciudad, San Francisco es más soleado, con un promedio de 260 días despejados y solo 105 días nublados por año. [ cita requerida ]

Las temperaturas alcanzan o superan los 80 ° F (27 ° C) en un promedio de solo 21 y 23 días al año en el centro y el Aeropuerto Internacional de San Francisco (SFO), respectivamente. [102] El período seco de mayo a octubre es de leve a cálido, con la temperatura media mensual normal alcanzando un máximo en septiembre de 62,7 ° F (17,1 ° C). [102] El período lluvioso de noviembre a abril es ligeramente más frío, con la temperatura media mensual normal alcanzando su nivel más bajo en enero a 51,3 ° F (10,7 ° C). [102] En promedio, hay 73 días de lluvia al año y la precipitación anual promedia 23,65 pulgadas (601 mm). [102] La variación en las precipitaciones de un año a otro es alta. Los años de lluvia por encima del promedio a menudo se asocian con El Niño cálidocondiciones en el Pacífico, mientras que los años secos a menudo ocurren en períodos de agua fría La Niña . En 2013 (un año de "La Niña"), se registró un mínimo histórico de 5,59 pulgadas (142 mm) de lluvia en el centro de San Francisco, donde se han mantenido registros desde 1849. [102] Las nevadas en la ciudad son muy raras, con solo Diez acumulaciones mensurables registradas desde 1852, la más reciente en 1976, cuando hasta 5 pulgadas (13 cm) cayeron sobre Twin Peaks. [103] [104]

La temperatura más alta registrada en la estación de observación oficial del Centro Meteorológico Nacional [a] fue de 106 ° F (41 ° C) el 1 de septiembre de 2017. [106] La temperatura más baja registrada fue de 27 ° F (−3 ° C) en diciembre 11, 1932. [107] El Servicio Meteorológico Nacional proporciona una ayuda visual útil [108] al graficar la información en la siguiente tabla para mostrar visualmente por mes las temperaturas típicas anuales, las temperaturas del año pasado y las temperaturas récord.

San Francisco se incluye en la zona de resistencia de plantas USDA 10b . [109] [110]

MesenefebmarabrMayojunjulagosepoctnovdicAño
Registro alto ° F (° C)79
(26)
81
(27)
87
(31)
94
(34)
97
(36)
103
(39)
98
(37)
98
(37)
106
(41)
102
(39)
86
(30)
76
(24)
106
(41)
Máximo medio ° F (° C)67,1
(19,5)
71,8
(22,1)
76,4
(24,7)
80,7
(27,1)
81,4
(27,4)
84,6
(29,2)
80,5
(26,9)
83,4
(28,6)
90,8
(32,7)
87,9
(31,1)
75,8
(24,3)
66,4
(19,1)
94,0
(34,4)
Promedio alto ° F (° C)57,8
(14,3)
60,4
(15,8)
62,1
(16,7)
63,0
(17,2)
64,1
(17,8)
66,5
(19,2)
66,3
(19,1)
67,9
(19,9)
70,2
(21,2)
69,8
(21,0)
63,7
(17,6)
57,9
(14,4)
64,1
(17,8)
Media diaria ° F (° C)52,2
(11,2)
54,2
(12,3)
55,5
(13,1)
56,4
(13,6)
57,8
(14,3)
59,7
(15,4)
60,3
(15,7)
61,7
(16,5)
62,9
(17,2)
62,1
(16,7)
57,2
(14,0)
52,5
(11,4)
57,7
(14,3)
Promedio bajo ° F (° C)46,6
(8,1)
47,9
(8,8)
48,9
(9,4)
49,7
(9,8)
51,4
(10,8)
53,0
(11,7)
54,4
(12,4)
55,5
(13,1)
55,6
(13,1)
54,4
(12,4)
50,7
(10,4)
47,0
(8,3)
51,3
(10,7)
Mínimo medio ° F (° C)40,5
(4,7)
42,0
(5,6)
43,7
(6,5)
45,0
(7,2)
48,0
(8,9)
50,1
(10,1)
51,6
(10,9)
52,9
(11,6)
52,0
(11,1)
49,9
(9,9)
44,9
(7,2)
40,7
(4,8)
38,8
(3,8)
Grabar bajo ° F (° C)29
(−2)
31
(−1)
33
(1)
40
(4)
42
(6)
46
(8)
47
(8)
46
(8)
47
(8)
43
(6)
38
(3)
27
(−3)
27
(−3)
Precipitación media pulgadas (mm)4,40
(112)
4,37
(111)
3,15
(80)
1,60
(41)
0,70
(18)
0,20
(5,1)
0,01
(0,25)
0,06
(1,5)
0,10
(2,5)
0,94
(24)
2,60
(66)
4.76
(121)
22.89
(581)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)11.210.810.86.84.01.60.71.11.23.57.911.671.2
Average relative humidity (%)80777572727175757371757875
Mean monthly sunshine hours185.9207.7269.1309.3325.1311.4313.3287.4271.4247.1173.4160.63,061.7
Percent possible sunshine61697378747070687371575469
Source 1: NOAA (sun 1961–1974)[102][111][112][113]
Source 2: Met Office for humidity[114]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Históricamente, los alces tule estaban presentes en el condado de San Francisco, según la evidencia arqueológica de restos de alces en al menos cinco diferentes conchas de nativos americanos : en Hunter's Point, Fort Mason, Stevenson Street, Market Street y Yerba Buena. [115] [116] Quizás el primer registro histórico de un observador fue de la Expedición De Anza el 23 de marzo de 1776. Herbert Eugene Bolton escribió sobre el campamento de la expedición en Mountain Lake, cerca del extremo sur del Presidio actual : "Alrededor había ciervos pastando , y esparcidas aquí y allá las astas de alce grande ". [117] Además, cuando Richard Henry Dana Jr.visitó la bahía de San Francisco en 1835, escribió acerca de las grandes manadas de alces cerca del Golden Gate : el 27 de diciembre "... llegamos a anclar cerca de la boca de la bahía, bajo una colina alta y bellamente inclinada, sobre la cual manadas de cientos y cientos de ciervos rojos [nota: "ciervo rojo" es el término europeo para "alce"], y el ciervo, con sus altas astas ramificadas, saltaba ... ", aunque no está claro si este era el lado de Marin o el lado de San Francisco. [118]

Demografía [ editar ]

Población histórica
AñoMúsica pop.±%
18481.000-    
184925 000+ 2400,0%
185234,776+ 39,1%
186056,802+ 63,3%
1870149,473+ 163,1%
1880233,959+ 56,5%
1890298.997+ 27,8%
1900342,782+ 14,6%
1910416,912+ 21,6%
1920506,676+ 21,5%
1930634,394+ 25,2%
1940634,536+ 0,0%
1950775,357+ 22,2%
1960740,316−4,5%
1970715,674−3,3%
1980678,974−5,1%
1990723,959+ 6,6%
2000776,733+ 7,3%
2010805,235+ 3,7%
2019881,549+ 9.5%
Fuente: Censo decenal de EE. UU., [119] [15] [45] [120] [121]

La Oficina del Censo de EE. UU. Estima que la población de San Francisco era de 881,549 al 1 de julio de 2019, con una densidad de población de 18,838 / milla cuadrada. [15] Con aproximadamente una cuarta parte de la densidad de población de Manhattan , San Francisco es la segunda gran ciudad estadounidense más densamente poblada , solo detrás de la ciudad de Nueva York entre las ciudades de más de 200,000 habitantes, y el quinto condado de EE. UU. Más densamente poblado , después de sólo cuatro de los cinco distritos de Nueva York boroughs .

San Francisco forma parte del área estadística metropolitana de cinco condados de San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA , una región de 4.7 millones de personas, y ha servido como su punto focal demográfico tradicional. También es parte del área estadística combinada de 14 condados de San José-San Francisco-Oakland, CA , cuya población supera los 9,6 millones, lo que la convierte en la quinta más grande de los Estados Unidos a partir de 2018. [15]

Raza, etnia, religión e idiomas [ editar ]

San Francisco tiene una población mayoritaria minoritaria , ya que los blancos no hispanos comprenden menos de la mitad de la población, 41,9%, frente al 92,5% en 1940. [51] Según el censo de 2010, la composición étnica y la población de San Francisco incluían: 390,387 blancos (48%), 267,915 asiáticos (33%), 48,870 afroamericanos (6%) y otros. Había 121,744 hispanos o latinos de cualquier raza (15%).

En 2010, los residentes de etnia china constituían el grupo minoritario étnico más grande en San Francisco con el 21% de la población; los otros grupos asiáticos son filipinos (5%) y vietnamitas (2%). [122] La población de ascendencia china se concentra más en Chinatown, Sunset District y Richmond District , mientras que los filipinos se concentran más en Crocker-Amazon (que es contigua a la comunidad filipina de Daly City , que tiene una de las más altas concentraciones de filipinos en América del Norte), así como en SoMa . [122] [123] ElTenderloin District is home to a large portion of the city's Vietnamese population as well as businesses and restaurants, which is known as the city's Little Saigon.[122]

The principal Hispanic groups in the city were those of Mexican (7%) and Salvadoran (2%) ancestry. The Hispanic population is most heavily concentrated in the Mission District, Tenderloin District, and Excelsior District.[124] The city's percentage of Hispanic residents is less than half of that of the state. The population of African Americans in San Francisco is 6% of the city's population.[51][125] The percentage of African Americans in San Francisco is similar to that of California.[125] The majority of the city's black population reside within the neighborhoods of Bayview-Hunters Point , Visitacion Valley y en el distrito de Fillmore . [124]

Mapa de distribución racial en el área de la bahía de San Francisco, censo de 2010 de EE. UU. Cada punto es de 25 personas: blanco , negro , asiático , hispano u otro (amarillo)
Perfil demográfico [126] [127] [128]20102000199019701940
blanco48,5%49,7%53,6%71,4%95,0%
Blanco no hispano41,9%43,6%46,6%60,4% [129]92,5%
asiático33,3%30,8%29,1%13,3%4,2%
Negro o afroamericano6,1%7,8%10,9%13,4%0,8%
Indio americano y nativo de Alaska0,5%0,4%0,5%0,4%-
Nativo de Hawái y otras islas del Pacífico0,4%0,5%0,5%--
Alguna otra raza6,6%6,5%5,9%1,5%-
Dos o mas carreras4,7%4,0%---
Hispano o Latino (de cualquier raza)15,1%14,1%13,9%11,6% [129]2,5%
Fuente: Censo de EE. UU.

Según un estudio de 2014 del Pew Research Center , los grupos religiosos más grandes en el área metropolitana de San Francisco son cristianos (48%), seguidos de los que no tienen religión (35%), hindúes (5%), judíos (3%), Los budistas (2%), los musulmanes (1%) y una variedad de otras religiones tienen seguidores más pequeños. Según el mismo estudio del Pew Research Center , alrededor del 20% de los residentes en el área son protestantes y el 25% profesan creencias católicas romanas . Mientras tanto, el 10% de los residentes en el área metropolitana de San Francisco se identifican como agnósticos., mientras que el 5% se identifica como ateo . [130] [131]

A partir de 2010 , el 55% (411,728) de los residentes de San Francisco solo hablaba inglés en casa, mientras que el 19% (140,302) hablaba una variedad de chino (principalmente taishanés y cantonés [132] [133] ), 12% (88,147) español , 3% (25,767) tagalo y 2% (14,017) ruso . En total, el 45% (342,693) de la población de San Francisco hablaba un idioma en casa que no era el inglés. [134]

Perfil demográfico [135]2010
Población total805.235 - 100%
hispano o latino121.774 - 15,1%
blanco390.387 - 48,5%
afroamericano48.870 - 6,1%
asiático267.915 - 33,3%
Indio americano y nativo de Alaska4.024 - 0,5%
Nativo de Hawái y de las islas del Pacífico3.359 - 0,4%
Otro53.021 - 6,6%
Dos o mas carreras37.659 - 4,7%

Agrupación étnica [ editar ]

San Francisco has several prominent Chinese, Mexican, and Filipino ethnic neighborhoods including Chinatown and the Mission District. Research collected on the immigrant clusters in the city show that more than half of the Asian population in San Francisco is either Chinese-born (40.3%) or Philippine-born (13.1%), and of the Mexican population 21% were Mexican-born, meaning these are people who recently immigrated to the United States.[136] Between the years of 1990 and 2000, the number foreign born residents increased from 33% to nearly 40%,[136] During this same time period, the San Francisco Metropolitan area received 850,000 immigrants, ranking third in the United States after Los Angeles and New York.[136]

Educación, hogares e ingresos [ editar ]

De todas las ciudades importantes de los Estados Unidos, San Francisco tiene el segundo porcentaje más alto de residentes con un título universitario, solo detrás de Seattle . Más del 44% de los adultos tienen una licenciatura o un título superior. [137] San Francisco tuvo la tasa más alta en 7.031 por milla cuadrada, o más de 344.000 graduados en total en 46,7 millas cuadradas de la ciudad (121 km 2 ). [138]

San Francisco tiene el porcentaje estimado más alto de personas homosexuales y lesbianas de cualquiera de las 50 ciudades más grandes de EE. UU., Con un 15%. [139] San Francisco también tiene el porcentaje más alto de hogares del mismo sexo de cualquier condado estadounidense, y el Área de la Bahía tiene una concentración más alta que cualquier otra área metropolitana . [140]

Ingresos en 2011
Renta per cápita [141]$ 46,777
Ingresos familiares medios [142]$ 72,947
Ingresos familiares medios [143]$ 87,329

San Francisco ocupa el tercer lugar de las ciudades estadounidenses en ingresos familiares medios [144] con un valor de 2007 de 65.519 dólares. [125] El ingreso familiar promedio es de $ 81.136. [125] Una emigración de familias de clase media ha dejado a la ciudad con una menor proporción de niños que cualquier otra gran ciudad estadounidense, [145] con la población de perros citada como superior a la población infantil de 115.000, en 2018. [146] El La tasa de pobreza de la ciudad es del 12%, más baja que el promedio nacional. [147] La falta de vivienda ha sido un problema crónico para San Francisco desde principios de la década de 1970. [148]Se cree que la ciudad tiene el mayor número de habitantes sin hogar per cápita de cualquier ciudad importante de Estados Unidos. [149] [150]

Hay 345,811 hogares en la ciudad, de los cuales: 133,366 hogares (39%) eran individuos, 109,437 (32%) eran parejas casadas del sexo opuesto , 63,577 (18%) tenían niños menores de 18 años viviendo en ellos, 21,677 (6%) eran parejas no casadas del sexo opuesto , y 10,384 (3%) eran parejas o parejas casadas del mismo sexo . El tamaño medio del hogar era 2,26; el tamaño medio de la familia era 3,11. 452,986 personas (56%) vivían en unidades de vivienda de alquiler y 327,985 personas (41%) vivían en unidades de vivienda ocupadas por sus propietarios. La edad media de la población de la ciudad es de 38 años.

San Francisco "se declaró ciudad santuario en 1989, y los funcionarios de la ciudad reforzaron la postura en 2013 con su ordenanza de" Debido proceso para todos ". La ley declaró que las autoridades locales no podían detener a los inmigrantes para los funcionarios de inmigración si no tenían delitos violentos en sus registros. y actualmente no enfrenta cargos ". [151] La ciudad emite una tarjeta de identificación de residente independientemente del estado migratorio del solicitante. [152]

Desamparo [ editar ]

Una ciudad de tiendas de campaña en San Francisco en mayo de 2020

Históricamente, la falta de vivienda ha sido un problema importante en la ciudad y sigue siendo un problema creciente en los tiempos modernos. [153]

Se contaron 8.035 personas sin hogar en el conteo puntual de calles y refugios de San Francisco de 2019. Este fue un aumento de más del 17% con respecto al recuento de 6,858 personas de 2017. 5.180 de las personas vivían sin refugio en las calles y en los parques. [154] El 26% de los encuestados en el recuento de 2019 identificó la pérdida del empleo como la causa principal de su falta de vivienda, el 18% citó el uso de alcohol o drogas y el 13% citó haber sido desalojado de su residencia. [154] La ciudad de San Francisco ha aumentado drásticamente su gasto para atender la creciente crisis de personas sin hogar: el gasto aumentó en 241 millones de dólares en 2016-17 hasta un total de 275 millones de dólares, en comparación con un presupuesto de solo 34 millones de dólares el año anterior. En 2017-18, el presupuesto para combatir la falta de vivienda fue de $ 305 millones. [155]En el año presupuestario 2019-2020, la ciudad presupuestó $ 368 millones para servicios para personas sin hogar. En el presupuesto propuesto para 2020–2021, la ciudad presupuestó $ 850 millones para servicios para personas sin hogar. [156]

En enero de 2018, una relatora especial de las Naciones Unidas sobre personas sin hogar, Leilani Farha , declaró que estaba "completamente conmocionada" por la crisis de personas sin hogar de San Francisco durante una visita a la ciudad. Ella comparó las "condiciones deplorables" de los campamentos de personas sin hogar que presenció en las calles de San Francisco con los que había visto en Mumbai . [155] En mayo de 2020, San Francisco aprobó oficialmente los campamentos para personas sin hogar . [157]

Crimen [ editar ]

San Francisco
Tasas de criminalidad * (2018)
Crímenes violentos
Homicidio2.4
Violación20,8
Robo171,0
Asalto agravado149,9
Crimen violento total344,1
Delitos contra la propiedad
Robo290,5
Hurto-hurto2.136,3
Robo de vehículos de motor222,4
Incendio provocado14,4
Delitos contra la propiedad total2.649,2
Notas

* Número de delitos denunciados por 100.000 habitantes.


Fuente : datos de la UCR de 2019 del FBI

En 2011, se reportaron 50 asesinatos, lo que representa 6,1 por cada 100.000 personas. [158] Hubo alrededor de 134 violaciones, 3,142 robos y alrededor de 2,139 asaltos. Hubo alrededor de 4.469 robos, 25.100 robos y 4.210 robos de vehículos de motor. [159] El área de Tenderloin tiene la tasa de criminalidad más alta en San Francisco: el 70% de los crímenes violentos de la ciudad, y alrededor de una cuarta parte de los asesinatos de la ciudad, ocurren en este vecindario. El Tenderloin también presenta altas tasas de abuso de drogas, violencia de pandillas y prostitución. [160] Otra área con altos índices de criminalidad es Bayview-Hunters Point.área. En los primeros seis meses de 2015 hubo 25 asesinatos en comparación con 14 en los primeros seis meses de 2014. Sin embargo, la tasa de homicidios sigue siendo mucho más baja que en las últimas décadas. [161] Sin embargo, esa tasa volvió a aumentar al cierre de 2016. Según el Departamento de Policía de San Francisco, hubo 59 asesinatos en la ciudad en 2016, un total anual que marcó un aumento del 13,5% en el número de homicidios ( 52) de 2015. [162]

Durante la primera mitad de 2018, las heces humanas en las aceras de San Francisco fueron la segunda queja más frecuente de los residentes de la ciudad, con alrededor de 65 llamadas por día. La ciudad ha formado una "patrulla de caca" para intentar combatir el problema. [163]

Pandillas [ editar ]

Varias pandillas callejeras han operado en la ciudad a lo largo de las décadas, incluida la MS-13 , [164] los Sureños y Norteños en el Distrito de la Misión. [165] En 2008, un miembro de la MS-13 mató a tres miembros de la familia cuando llegaban a casa en el distrito de Excelsior de la ciudad . Sus víctimas no tenían ninguna relación con él, ni tenían ninguna participación conocida en pandillas o delitos callejeros.

Las pandillas callejeras afroamericanas conocidas en otras ciudades, incluidos los Blood , Crips y sus grupos, han luchado por establecerse en San Francisco, [166] mientras que la policía y los fiscales han sido acusados ​​de etiquetar liberalmente a los jóvenes varones afroamericanos como pandilleros. [167] Sin embargo, las pandillas fundadas en San Francisco con membresías mayoritarias negras han hecho su presencia en la ciudad. La pandilla Westmob , asociada con las pandillas del proyecto de vivienda Oakdale Mob y Sunnydale del área sureste de la ciudad, estuvo involucrada en una guerra de pandillas con Big Block, con sede en Hunters Point, desde 1999 hasta la década de 2000. Se desconoce su estado actual de actividad. [168]Reclaman territorio desde West Point hasta Middle Point en los proyectos de Hunters Point . [169] En 2004, un miembro de Westmob mató a tiros a un oficial del SFPD e hirió a su compañero; fue condenado a cadena perpetua sin libertad condicional en 2007 [170].

Se ha informado de que las bandas criminales con gritos de bala en China, incluidos los grupos de la Tríada como Wo Hop To , están activas en San Francisco. [171] En 1977, una rivalidad en curso entre dos bandas chinas llevó a un ataque a tiros en el restaurante Golden Dragon en Chinatown , que dejó 5 muertos y 11 heridos. Ninguna de las víctimas de este ataque eran pandilleros. Cinco miembros de la pandilla Joe Boys fueron arrestados y condenados por el crimen. [172] En 1990, un tiroteo relacionado con una pandilla mató a un hombre e hirió a otros seis fuera de un club nocturno cerca de Chinatown. [173]En 1998, seis adolescentes fueron baleados y heridos en el Chinese Playground; Posteriormente, se detuvo a un joven de 16 años. [174]

Economía [ editar ]

Según el académico Rob Wilson, San Francisco es una ciudad global , un estado anterior a la popularidad de la ciudad durante la fiebre del oro de California . [175] Estas ciudades se caracterizan por su agrupación étnica , una red de conectividad internacional y la convergencia de la innovación tecnológica. [136] Global cities, such as San Francisco, are considered to be complex and require a high level of talent as well as large masses of low wage workers. A divide is created within the city of ethnic, typically lower-class neighborhoods, and expensive ones with newly developed buildings. This in turn creates a population of highly educated, white-collar individuals as well as blue-collar workers, many of whom are immigrants, and who both are drawn to the increasing number of opportunities available.[176] Competition for these opportunities pushes growth and adaptation in world centers.[177]

San Francisco tiene una economía de servicios diversificada , con empleo distribuido en una amplia gama de servicios profesionales, incluidos servicios financieros , turismo y (cada vez más) alta tecnología . [178] En 2016, aproximadamente el 27% de los trabajadores estaban empleados en servicios empresariales profesionales; 14% en ocio y hostelería; 13% en servicios gubernamentales; 12% en educación y salud; 11% en comercio, transporte y servicios públicos; y 8% en actividades financieras. [178] En 2019, el PIB en el área metropolitana de San Francisco de cinco condados creció 3.8% en términos reales a $ 592 mil millones. [179] [26] Además, en 2019, los 14 condadosEl área estadística combinada San José-San Francisco-Oakland tuvo un PIB de $ 1.086 billones, [26] ocupando el tercer lugar entre las CSA , y por delante de todos los países menos 16 . A partir de 2019, el condado de San Francisco era el séptimo condado de mayores ingresos en los Estados Unidos (entre 3,142), con un ingreso personal per cápita de $ 139,405. [24] El condado de Marin , directamente al norte sobre el puente Golden Gate , y el condado de San Mateo , directamente al sur en la península , fueron el sexto y noveno condados de ingresos más altos, respectivamente.

California Street en el distrito financiero

The legacy of the California Gold Rush turned San Francisco into the principal banking and finance center of the West Coast in the early twentieth century.[180] Montgomery Street in the Financial District became known as the "Wall Street of the West", home to the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, the Wells Fargo corporate headquarters, and the site of the now-defunct Pacific Coast Stock Exchange.[180] Bank of America, a pioneer in making banking services accessible to the middle class, was founded in San Francisco and in the 1960s, built the landmark modern skyscraper at 555 California Street for its corporate headquarters. Many large financial institutions, multinational banks, and venture capital firms are based in or have regional headquarters in the city. With over 30 international financial institutions,[181] six Fortune 500 companies,[182] and a large support infrastructure of professional services—including law, public relations, architecture and design—San Francisco is designated as an Alpha(-) World City.[183] The 2017 Global Financial Centres Index ranked San Francisco as the sixth-most competitive financial center in the world.[184]

Since the 1990s, San Francisco's economy has diversified away from finance and tourism towards the growing fields of high tech, biotechnology, and medical research.[185] Technology jobs accounted for just 1 percent of San Francisco's economy in 1990, growing to 4 percent in 2010 and an estimated 8 percent by the end of 2013.[186] San Francisco became a center of Internet start-up companies during the dot-com bubble of the 1990s and the subsequent social media boom of the late 2000s (decade).[187] Since 2010, San Francisco proper has attracted an increasing share of venture capital investments as compared to nearby Silicon Valley, attracting 423 financings worth US$4.58 billion in 2013.[188][189][190] In 2004, the city approved a payroll tax exemption for biotechnology companies[191] to foster growth in the Mission Bay neighborhood, site of a second campus and hospital of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Mission Bay hosts the UCSF Medical Center, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, and Gladstone Institutes,[192] as well as more than 40 private-sector life sciences companies.[193]

Ships docked at Pier 3, with Financial District skyscrapers in the background

The top employer in the city is the city government itself, employing 5.6% (31,000+ people) of the city's workforce, followed by UCSF with over 25,000 employees.[194] The largest private-sector employer is Salesforce, with 8,500 employees, as of 2018.[195] Small businesses with fewer than 10 employees and self-employed firms make up 85% of city establishments,[196] and the number of San Franciscans employed by firms of more than 1,000 employees has fallen by half since 1977.[197] The growth of national big box and formula retail chains into the city has been made intentionally difficult by political and civic consensus. In an effort to buoy small privately owned businesses in San Francisco and preserve the unique retail personality of the city, the Small Business Commission started a publicity campaign in 2004 to keep a larger share of retail dollars in the local economy,[198] and the Board of Supervisors has used the planning code to limit the neighborhoods where formula retail establishments can set up shop,[199] an effort affirmed by San Francisco voters.[200] However, by 2016, San Francisco was rated low by small businesses in a Business Friendliness Survey.[201]

Like many U.S. cities, San Francisco once had a significant manufacturing sector employing nearly 60,000 workers in 1969, but nearly all production left for cheaper locations by the 1980s.[202] As of 2014, San Francisco has seen a small resurgence in manufacturing, with more than 4,000 manufacturing jobs across 500 companies, doubling since 2011. The city's largest manufacturing employer is Anchor Brewing Company, and the largest by revenue is Timbuk2.[202]

Technology[edit]

San Francisco became a hub for technological driven economic growth during the internet boom of the 1990s, and still holds an important position in the world city network today.[136][177] Intense redevelopment towards the "new economy" makes business more technologically minded. Between the years of 1999 and 2000, the job growth rate was 4.9%, creating over 50,000 jobs in technology firms and internet content production.[136]

In the second technological boom driven by social media in the mid 2000s, San Francisco became a location for companies such as Apple, Google, Facebook and Twitter to base their tech offices and for their employees to live.[203] Since then, tech employment has continued to increase. In 2014, San Francisco's tech employment grew nearly 90% between 2010 and 2014, beating out Silicon Valley's 30% growth rate over the same period.[204]

The tech sector's dominance in the Bay Area is internationally recognized and continues to attract new businesses and young entrepreneurs from all over the globe.[204] San Francisco is now widely considered the most important city in the world for new technology startups.[205] A recent high of 7 billion dollars in venture capital was invested in the region.[204] These startup companies hire well educated individuals looking to work in the tech industry, which helps the city have a well educated citizenry. Over 50% of San Franciscans have a 4-year university degree, thus the city ranks high in terms of its population's educational level.[203]

Tourism and conventions[edit]

Tourism is one of the city's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than one out of seven jobs in the city.[185][206] The city's frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. In 2016, it attracted the fifth-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States.[207] More than 25 million visitors arrived in San Francisco in 2016, adding US$9.96 billion to the economy.[208]With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the Moscone Center, San Francisco is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences.[209]

Lombard Street is a popular tourist destination in San Francisco, known for its "crookedness".

Some of the most popular tourist attractions in San Francisco noted by the Travel Channel include the Golden Gate Bridge and Alamo Square Park, which is home to the famous "Painted Ladies". Both of these locations were often used as landscape shots for the hit American sitcom Full House. There is also Lombard Street, known for its "crookedness" and extensive views. Tourists also visit Pier 39, which offers dining, shopping, entertainment, and views of the bay, sun-bathing seals, and the famous Alcatraz Island.[210]

San Francisco also offers tourists cultural and unique nightlife in its neighborhoods.[211]

The new Terminal Project at Pier 27 opened September 25, 2014 as a replacement for the old Pier 35.[212] Itineraries from San Francisco usually include round trip cruises to Alaska and Mexico.

A heightened interest in conventioneering in San Francisco, marked by the establishment of convention centers such as Yerba Buena, acted as a feeder into the local tourist economy and resulted in an increase in the hotel industry: "In 1959, the city had fewer than thirty-three hundred first-class hotel rooms; by 1970, the number was nine thousand; and by 1999, there were more than thirty thousand."[213] The commodification of the Castro District has contributed to San Francisco's tourist economy.[214]

Arts and culture[edit]

Boutiques along Fillmore Street in Pacific Heights

Although the Financial District, Union Square, and Fisherman's Wharf are well known around the world, San Francisco is also characterized by its numerous culturally rich streetscapes featuring mixed-use neighborhoods anchored around central commercial corridors to which residents and visitors alike can walk. Because of these characteristics, San Francisco is ranked the second "most walkable" city in the United States by Walkscore.com.[215] Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many visitors and tourists. Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafés and nightlife such as Union Street in Cow Hollow, 24th Street in Noe Valley, Valencia Street in the Mission, Grant Avenue in North Beach, and Irving Street in the Inner Sunset. This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences.[216]

High-rises surround Yerba Buena Gardens, South of Market.

Since the 1990s, the demand for skilled information technology workers from local startups and nearby Silicon Valley has attracted white-collar workers from all over the world and created a high standard of living in San Francisco.[217] Many neighborhoods that were once blue-collar, middle, and lower class have been gentrifying, as many of the city's traditional business and industrial districts have experienced a renaissance driven by the redevelopment of the Embarcadero, including the neighborhoods South Beach and Mission Bay. The city's property values and household income have risen to among the highest in the nation,[218][219][220] creating a large and upscale restaurant, retail, and entertainment scene. According to a 2014 quality of life survey of global cities, San Francisco has the highest quality of living of any U.S. city.[221] However, due to the exceptionally high cost of living, many of the city's middle and lower-class families have been leaving the city for the outer suburbs of the Bay Area, or for California's Central Valley.[222] By June 2, 2015, the median rent was reported to be as high as $4,225.[223] The high cost of living is due in part to restrictive planning laws which limit new residential construction.[224]

The international character that San Francisco has enjoyed since its founding is continued today by large numbers of immigrants from Asia and Latin America. With 39% of its residents born overseas,[197] San Francisco has numerous neighborhoods filled with businesses and civic institutions catering to new arrivals. In particular, the arrival of many ethnic Chinese, which began to accelerate in the 1970s, has complemented the long-established community historically based in Chinatown throughout the city and has transformed the annual Chinese New Year Parade into the largest event of its kind in its hemisphere.[225][226]

With the arrival of the "beat" writers and artists of the 1950s and societal changes culminating in the Summer of Love in the Haight-Ashbury district during the 1960s, San Francisco became a center of liberal activism and of the counterculture that arose at that time. The Democrats and to a lesser extent the Green Party have dominated city politics since the late 1970s, after the last serious Republican challenger for city office lost the 1975 mayoral election by a narrow margin. San Francisco has not voted more than 20% for a Republican presidential or senatorial candidate since 1988.[227] In 2007, the city expanded its Medicaid and other indigent medical programs into the Healthy San Francisco program,[228] which subsidizes certain medical services for eligible residents.[229][230][231]

San Francisco also has had a very active environmental community. Starting with the founding of the Sierra Club in 1892 to the establishment of the non-profit Friends of the Urban Forest in 1981, San Francisco has been at the forefront of many global discussions regarding the environment.[232][233] The 1980 San Francisco Recycling Program was one of the earliest curbside recycling programs.[234] The city's GoSolarSF incentive promotes solar installations and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is rolling out the CleanPowerSF program to sell electricity from local renewable sources.[235][236] SF Greasecycle is a program to recycle used cooking oil for conversion to biodiesel.[237]

The Sunset Reservoir Solar Project, completed in 2010, installed 24,000 solar panels on the roof of the reservoir. The 5-megawatt plant more than tripled the city's 2-megawatt solar generation capacity when it opened in December 2010.[238][239]

LGBT[edit]

The rainbow flag, symbol of LGBT pride, originated in San Francisco; banners like this one decorate streets in The Castro.

San Francisco has long had an LGBT-friendly history. It was home to the first lesbian-rights organization in the United States, Daughters of Bilitis; the first openly gay person to run for public office in the United States, José Sarria; the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California, Harvey Milk; the first openly lesbian judge appointed in the U.S., Mary C. Morgan; and the first transgender police commissioner, Theresa Sparks. The city's large gay population has created and sustained a politically and culturally active community over many decades, developing a powerful presence in San Francisco's civic life.[citation needed] Survey data released in 2015 by Gallup place the proportion of the San Francisco metro area at 6.2%, which is the highest such proportion observed of the 50 most populous metropolitan areas as measured by the polling organization.[240]

One of the most popular destinations for gay tourists internationally, the city hosts San Francisco Pride, one of the largest and oldest pride parades. San Francisco Pride events have been held continuously since 1972. The events are themed and a new theme is created each year. In 2013, over 1.5 million people attended, around 500,000 more than the previous year.[241]

The Folsom Street Fair (FSF) is an annual BDSM and leather subculture street fair that is held in September, capping San Francisco's "Leather Pride Week".[242] It started in 1984 and is California's third-largest single-day, outdoor spectator event and the world's largest leather event and showcase for BDSM products and culture.[243]

Performing arts[edit]

The lobby of the War Memorial Opera House, one of the last buildings erected in Beaux Arts style in the United States

San Francisco's War Memorial and Performing Arts Center hosts some of the most enduring performing-arts companies in the country. The War Memorial Opera House houses the San Francisco Opera, the second-largest opera company in North America[244][citation needed] as well as the San Francisco Ballet, while the San Francisco Symphony plays in Davies Symphony Hall. Opened in 2013, the SFJAZZ Center hosts jazz performances year round.[citation needed]

The Fillmore is a music venue located in the Western Addition. It is the second incarnation of the historic venue that gained fame in the 1960s, housing the stage where now-famous musicians such as the Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, Led Zeppelin and Jefferson Airplane first performed, fostering the San Francisco Sound.[citation needed]

San Francisco has a large number of theaters and live performance venues. Local theater companies have been noted for risk taking and innovation.[245] The Tony Award-winning non-profit American Conservatory Theater (A.C.T.) is a member of the national League of Resident Theatres. Other local winners of the Regional Theatre Tony Award include the San Francisco Mime Troupe.[246]San Francisco theaters frequently host pre-Broadway engagements and tryout runs,[247] and some original San Francisco productions have later moved to Broadway.[248]

Museums[edit]

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) houses 20th century and contemporary works of art. It moved to its current building in the South of Market neighborhood in 1995 and attracted more than 600,000 visitors annually.[249] SFMOMA closed for renovation and expansion in 2013. The museum reopened on May 14, 2016 with an addition, designed by Snøhetta, that has doubled the museum's size.[250]

The Palace of the Legion of Honor holds primarily European antiquities and works of art at its Lincoln Park building modeled after its Parisian namesake. The de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park features American decorative pieces and anthropological holdings from Africa, Oceania and the Americas, while Asian art is housed in the Asian Art Museum. Opposite the de Young stands the California Academy of Sciences, a natural history museum that also hosts the Morrison Planetarium and Steinhart Aquarium. Located on Pier 15 on the Embarcadero, the Exploratorium is an interactive science museum. The Contemporary Jewish Museum is a non-collecting institution that hosts a broad array of temporary exhibitions. On Nob Hill, the Cable Car Museum is a working museum featuring the cable car power house, which drives the cables.[251]

Sports[edit]

Oracle Park opened in 2000.
The Olympic Club

Major League Baseball's San Francisco Giants have played in San Francisco since moving from New York in 1958. The Giants play at Oracle Park, which opened in 2000.[252] The Giants won World Series titles in 2010, 2012, and in 2014. The Giants have boasted such stars as Willie Mays, Willie McCovey and Barry Bonds. In 2012, San Francisco was ranked No. 1 in a study that examined which U.S. metro areas have produced the most Major Leaguers since 1920.[253]

The San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League (NFL) began play in 1946 as an All-America Football Conference (AAFC) league charter member, moved to the NFL in 1950 and into Candlestick Park in 1971. The team began playing its home games at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara in 2014.[254][255] The 49ers won five Super Bowl titles between 1982 and 1995.

The San Francisco Warriors played in the NBA from 1962 to 1971, before being renamed the Golden State Warriors prior to the 1971–1972 season in an attempt to present the team as a representation of the whole state of California.[256] The Warriors' arena, Chase Center, is located in San Francisco.[257] They have won six championships,[258] and made five consecutive NBA Finals from 2015 to 2019, winning three of them.

At the collegiate level, the San Francisco Dons compete in NCAA Division I. Bill Russell led the Don's basketball team to NCAA championships in 1955 and 1956. There is also the San Francisco State Gators, who compete in NCAA Division II.[259] Oracle Park hosted the annual Fight Hunger Bowl college football game from 2002 through 2013 before it moved to Santa Clara.

The Bay to Breakers footrace, held annually since 1912, is best known for colorful costumes and a celebratory community spirit.[260] The San Francisco Marathon attracts more than 21,000 participants.[261] The Escape from Alcatraz triathlon has, since 1980, attracted 2,000 top professional and amateur triathletes for its annual race.[262] The Olympic Club, founded in 1860, is the oldest athletic club in the United States. Its private golf course has hosted the U.S. Open on five occasions. San Francisco hosted the 2013 America's Cup yacht racing competition.[263]

With an ideal climate for outdoor activities, San Francisco has ample resources and opportunities for amateur and participatory sports and recreation. There are more than 200 miles (320 km) of bicycle paths, lanes and bike routes in the city.[264]San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the country.[265] Golden Gate Park has miles of paved and unpaved running trails as well as a golf course and disc golf course. Boating, sailing, windsurfing and kitesurfing are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the Marina District.

San Francisco also has had Esports teams, such as the Overwatch League's San Francisco Shock. Established in 2017,[266] they won two back-to-back championship titles in 2019 and 2020.[267][268]

Parks and recreation[edit]

Ocean Beach, San Francisco with a view of the Cliff House

Several of San Francisco's parks and nearly all of its beaches form part of the regional Golden Gate National Recreation Area, one of the most visited units of the National Park system in the United States with over 13 million visitors a year. Among the GGNRA's attractions within the city are Ocean Beach, which runs along the Pacific Ocean shoreline and is frequented by a vibrant surfing community, and Baker Beach, which is located in a cove west of the Golden Gate and part of the Presidio, a former military base. Also within the Presidio is Crissy Field, a former airfield that was restored to its natural salt marsh ecosystem. The GGNRA also administers Fort Funston, Lands End, Fort Mason, and Alcatraz. The National Park Service separately administers the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park – a fleet of historic ships and waterfront property around Aquatic Park.[citation needed]

Alamo Square is one of the most well known parks in the area, and is often a symbol of San Francisco for its popular location for film and pop culture.

There are more than 220 parks maintained by the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department.[269] The largest and best-known city park is Golden Gate Park,[270] which stretches from the center of the city west to the Pacific Ocean. Once covered in native grasses and sand dunes, the park was conceived in the 1860s and was created by the extensive planting of thousands of non-native trees and plants. The large park is rich with cultural and natural attractions such as the Conservatory of Flowers, Japanese Tea Garden and San Francisco Botanical Garden. Lake Merced is a fresh-water lake surrounded by parkland and near the San Francisco Zoo, a city-owned park that houses more than 250 animal species, many of which are endangered.[271] The only park managed by the California State Park system located principally in San Francisco, Candlestick Point was the state's first urban recreation area.[272]

San Francisco is the first city in the U.S. to have a park within a 10-Minute Walk of every resident.[273][274] It also ranks fifth in the U.S. for park access and quality in the 2018 ParkScore ranking of the top 100 park systems across the United States, according to the nonprofit Trust for Public Land.[275]

Government[edit]

San Francisco—officially known as the City and County of San Francisco—is a consolidated city-county, a status it has held since the 1856 secession of what is now San Mateo County.[28] It is the only such consolidation in California.[276] The mayor is also the county executive, and the county Board of Supervisors acts as the city council. The government of San Francisco is a charter city and is constituted of two co-equal branches: the executive branch is headed by the mayor and includes other citywide elected and appointed officials as well as the civil service; the 11-member Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch, is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets, though San Franciscans also make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation.[277]

San Francisco City Hall

The members of the Board of Supervisors are elected as representatives of specific districts within the city.[278] Upon the death or resignation of mayor, the President of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board elects an interim replacement for the remainder of the term. In 1978, Dianne Feinstein assumed the office following the assassination of George Moscone and was later selected by the board to finish the term. In 2011, Ed Lee was selected by the board to finish the term of Gavin Newsom, who resigned to take office as Lieutenant Governor of California.[279] Lee (who won 2 elections to remain mayor) was temporarily replaced by San Francisco Board of Supervisors President London Breed after he died on December 12, 2017. Supervisor Mark Farrell was appointed by the Board of Supervisors to finish Lee's term on January 23, 2018.

Because of its unique city-county status, the local government is able to exercise jurisdiction over certain property outside city limits. San Francisco International Airport, though located in San Mateo County, is owned and operated by the City and County of San Francisco. San Francisco's largest jail complex (County Jail No. 5) is located in San Mateo County, in an unincorporated area adjacent to San Bruno. San Francisco was also granted a perpetual leasehold over the Hetch Hetchy Valley and watershed in Yosemite National Park by the Raker Act in 1913.[276]

San Francisco serves as the regional hub for many arms of the federal bureaucracy, including the U.S. Court of Appeals, the Federal Reserve Bank, and the U.S. Mint. Until decommissioning in the early 1990s, the city had major military installations at the Presidio, Treasure Island, and Hunters Point—a legacy still reflected in the annual celebration of Fleet Week. The State of California uses San Francisco as the home of the state supreme court and other state agencies. Foreign governments maintain more than seventy consulates in San Francisco.[280]

The municipal budget for fiscal year 2015–16 was $8.99 billion,[281] and is one of the largest city budgets in the United States.[282] The City of San Francisco spends more per resident than any city other than Washington D.C, over $10,000 in FY 2015–2016.[282] The city employs around 27,000 workers.[283]

In the United States House of Representatives, San Francisco is split between California's 12th and 14th districts.

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

San Francisco State University Main Quad
The Lone Mountain Campus of the University of San Francisco

The University of California, San Francisco is the sole campus of the University of California system entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. It is ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States[284] and operates the UCSF Medical Center, which ranks as the number one hospital in California and the number 5 in the country.[285] UCSF is a major local employer, second in size only to the city and county government.[286][287][288] A 43-acre (17 ha) Mission Bay campus was opened in 2003, complementing its original facility in Parnassus Heights. It contains research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and life sciences entrepreneurship and will double the size of UCSF's research enterprise.[289] All in all, UCSF operates more than 20 facilities across San Francisco.[290] The University of California, Hastings College of the Law, founded in Civic Center in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution.[291]San Francisco's two University of California institutions have recently formed an official affiliation in the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy.[292]

San Francisco State University is part of the California State University system and is located near Lake Merced.[293] The school has approximately 30,000 students and awards undergraduate, master's and doctoral degrees in more than 100 disciplines.[293] The City College of San Francisco, with its main facility in the Ingleside district, is one of the largest two-year community colleges in the country. It has an enrollment of about 100,000 students and offers an extensive continuing education program.[294]

Founded in 1855, the University of San Francisco, a private Jesuit university located on Lone Mountain, is the oldest institution of higher education in San Francisco and one of the oldest universities established west of the Mississippi River.[295] Golden Gate University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university formed in 1901 and located in the Financial District. With an enrollment of 13,000 students, the Academy of Art University is the largest institute of art and design in the nation.[296] Founded in 1871, the San Francisco Art Institute is the oldest art school west of the Mississippi.[297] The California College of the Arts, located north of Potrero Hill, has programs in architecture, fine arts, design, and writing.[298] The San Francisco Conservatory of Music, the only independent music school on the West Coast, grants degrees in orchestral instruments, chamber music, composition, and conducting. The California Culinary Academy, associated with the Le Cordon Bleu program, offers programs in the culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, and hospitality and restaurant management. California Institute of Integral Studies, founded in 1968, offers a variety of graduate programs in its Schools of Professional Psychology & Health, and Consciousness and Transformation.

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Public schools are run by the San Francisco Unified School District as well as the California State Board of Education for some charter schools. Lowell High School, the oldest public high school in the U.S. west of the Mississippi,[299] and the smaller School of the Arts High School are two of San Francisco's magnet schools at the secondary level. Public school students attend schools based on an assignment system rather than neighborhood proximity.[300]

Just under 30% of the city's school-age population attends one of San Francisco's more than 100 private or parochial schools, compared to a 10% rate nationwide.[301] Nearly 40 of those schools are Catholic schools managed by the Archdiocese of San Francisco.[302]

Early education[edit]

San Francisco has nearly 300 preschool programs primarily operated by Head Start, San Francisco Unified School District, private for-profit, private non-profit and family child care providers.[303] All 4-year-old children living in San Francisco are offered universal access to preschool through the Preschool for All program.[304]

Media[edit]

San Francisco Chronicle Building

The major daily newspaper in San Francisco is the San Francisco Chronicle, which is currently Northern California's most widely circulated newspaper.[305] The Chronicle is most famous for a former columnist, the late Herb Caen, whose daily musings attracted critical acclaim and represented the "voice of San Francisco". The San Francisco Examiner, once the cornerstone of William Randolph Hearst's media empire and the home of Ambrose Bierce, declined in circulation over the years and now takes the form of a free daily tabloid, under new ownership.[306][307] Sing Tao Daily claims to be the largest of several Chinese language dailies that serve the Bay Area.[308] SF Weekly is the city's alternative weekly newspaper. San Francisco and 7x7 are major glossy magazines about San Francisco. The national newsmagazine Mother Jones is also based in San Francisco.

The San Francisco Bay Area is the sixth-largest television market[309] and the fourth-largest radio market[310] in the U.S. The city's oldest radio station, KCBS, began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909, before the beginning of commercial broadcasting. KALW was the city's first FM radio station when it signed on the air in 1941. The city's first television station was KPIX, which began broadcasting in 1948.

All major U.S. television networks have affiliates serving the region, with most of them based in the city. CNN, MSNBC, BBC, Al Jazeera America, Russia Today, and CCTV America also have regional news bureaus in San Francisco. Bloomberg West was launched in 2011 from a studio on the Embarcadero and CNBC broadcasts from One Market Plaza since 2015. ESPN uses the local ABC studio for their broadcasting. The regional sports network, Comcast SportsNet Bay Area and its sister station Comcast SportsNet California, are both located in San Francisco. The Pac-12 Network is also based in San Francisco.

Public broadcasting outlets include both a television station and a radio station, both broadcasting under the call letters KQED from a facility near the Potrero Hill neighborhood. KQED-FM is the most-listened-to National Public Radio affiliate in the country.[311] Another local broadcaster, KPOO, is an independent, African-American owned and operated noncommercial radio station established in 1971.[312] CNET, founded 1994, and Salon.com, 1995, are based in San Francisco.

San Francisco-based inventors made important contributions to modern media. During the 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge began recording motion photographically and invented a zoopraxiscope with which to view his recordings. These were the first motion pictures. Then in 1927, Philo Farnsworth's image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image. This was the first television.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Public transportation[edit]

A cable car ascending Hyde St, with Alcatraz on the bay behind

Transit is the most used form of transportation every day in San Francisco. Every weekday, more than 560,000 people travel on Muni’s 69 bus routes and more than 140,000 customers ride the Muni Metro light rail system.[313] 32% of San Francisco residents use public transportation for their daily commute to work, ranking it first on the West Coast and third overall in the United States.[314] The San Francisco Municipal Railway, primarily known as Muni, is the primary public transit system of San Francisco. Muni is the seventh-largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006.[315] The system operates a combined light rail and subway system, the Muni Metro, as well as large bus and trolley coach networks.[316] Additionally, it runs a historic streetcar line, which runs on Market Street from Castro Street to Fisherman's Wharf.[316] It also operates the famous cable cars,[316] which have been designated as a National Historic Landmark and are a major tourist attraction.[317]

Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), a regional Rapid Transit system, connects San Francisco with the East Bay and San Jose through the underwater Transbay Tube. The line runs under Market Street to Civic Center where it turns south to the Mission District, the southern part of the city, and through northern San Mateo County, to the San Francisco International Airport, and Millbrae.[316]

Another commuter rail system, Caltrain, runs from San Francisco along the San Francisco Peninsula to San Jose.[316] Historically, trains operated by Southern Pacific Lines ran from San Francisco to Los Angeles, via Palo Alto and San Jose.

Amtrak California Thruway Motorcoach runs a shuttle bus from three locations in San Francisco to its station across the bay in Emeryville.[318] Additionally, BART offers connections to San Francisco from Amtrak's stations in Emeryville, Oakland and Richmond, and Caltrain offers connections in San Jose and Santa Clara. Thruway service also runs south to San Luis Obispo with connection to the Pacific Surfliner.

The Golden Gate Ferry M/V Del Norte docked at the Ferry Building

San Francisco Bay Ferry operates from the Ferry Building and Pier 39 to points in Oakland, Alameda, Bay Farm Island, South San Francisco, and north to Vallejo in Solano County.[319] The Golden Gate Ferry is the other ferry operator with service between San Francisco and Marin County.[320] SolTrans runs supplemental bus service between the Ferry Building and Vallejo.

San Francisco was an early adopter of carsharing in America. The non-profit City CarShare opened in 2001.[321] Zipcar closely followed.[322]

To accommodate the large amount of San Francisco citizens who commute to the Silicon Valley daily, employers like Genentech, Google, and Apple have begun to provide private bus transportation for their employees, from San Francisco locations. These buses have quickly become a heated topic of debate within the city, as protesters claim they block bus lanes and delay public buses.[323]

The Bay Bridge offers the only direct automobile connection to the East Bay.

Freeways and roads[edit]

In 2014, only 41.3% of residents commuted by driving alone or carpooling in private vehicles in San Francisco, a decline from 48.6% in 2000.[324] There are 1,088 miles of streets in San Francisco with 946 miles of these streets being surface streets, and 59 miles of freeways.[324] Due to its unique geography, and the freeway revolts of the late 1950s,[325]Interstate 80 begins at the approach to the Bay Bridge and is the only direct automobile link to the East Bay. U.S. Route 101 connects to the western terminus of Interstate 80 and provides access to the south of the city along San Francisco Bay toward Silicon Valley. Northward, the routing for U.S. 101 uses arterial streets to connect to the Golden Gate Bridge, the only direct automobile link to Marin County and the North Bay.

As part of the retrofitting of the Golden Gate Bridge and installation of a suicide barrier, starting in 2019 the railings on the west side of the pedestrian walkway were replaced with thinner, more flexible slats in order to improve the bridge's aerodynamic tolerance of high wind to 100 mph (161 km/h). Starting in June 2020, reports were received of a loud hum produced by the new railing slats, heard across the city when a strong west wind was blowing.[326]

State Route 1 also enters San Francisco from the north via the Golden Gate Bridge and bisects the city as the 19th Avenue arterial thoroughfare, joining with Interstate 280 at the city's southern border. Interstate 280 continues south from San Francisco, and also turns to the east along the southern edge of the city, terminating just south of the Bay Bridge in the South of Market neighborhood. After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, city leaders demolished the Embarcadero Freeway and a portion of the Central Freeway, converting them into street-level boulevards.[325]

State Route 35 enters the city from the south as Skyline Boulevard and terminates at its intersection with Highway 1. State Route 82 enters San Francisco from the south as Mission Street, and terminates shortly thereafter at its junction with 280. The western terminus of the historic transcontinental Lincoln Highway, the first road across America, is in San Francisco's Lincoln Park.

Vision Zero[edit]

In 2014, San Francisco committed to Vision Zero, with the goal of ending all traffic fatalities caused by motor vehicles within the city by 2024.[327] San Francisco's Vision Zero plan calls for investing in engineering, enforcement, and education, and focusing on dangerous intersections. In 2013, 25 people were killed by car and truck drivers while walking and biking in the city and 9 car drivers and passengers were killed in collisions. In 2019, 42 people were killed in traffic collisions in San Francisco.[328]

Airports[edit]

San Francisco International Airport is the primary airport of San Francisco and the Bay Area.

Though located 13 miles (21 km) south of downtown in unincorporated San Mateo County, San Francisco International Airport (SFO) is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. SFO is a hub for United Airlines[329] and Alaska Airlines.[330] SFO is a major international gateway to Asia and Europe, with the largest international terminal in North America.[331] In 2011, SFO was the eighth-busiest airport in the U.S. and the 22nd-busiest in the world, handling over 40.9 million passengers.[332]

Located across the bay, Oakland International Airport is a popular, low-cost alternative to SFO. Geographically, Oakland Airport is approximately the same distance from downtown San Francisco as SFO, but due to its location across San Francisco Bay, it is greater driving distance from San Francisco.

Cycling and walking[edit]

A bike lane in San Francisco.

Cycling is a popular mode of transportation in San Francisco, with 75,000 residents commuting by bicycle each day.[333] In recent years, the city has installed better cycling infrastructure such as protected bike lanes and parking racks.[334] Bay Wheels, previously named Bay Area Bike Share at inception, launched in August 2013 with 700 bikes in downtown San Francisco, selected cities in the East Bay, and San Jose. The San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency and Bay Area Air Quality Management District are responsible for the operation with management provided by Motivate.[335] A major expansion started in 2017, along with a rebranding as Ford GoBike; the company received its current name in 2019.[336]Pedestrian traffic is also widespread. In 2015, Walk Score ranked San Francisco the second-most walkable city in the United States.[337][338][339]

San Francisco has significantly higher rates of pedestrian and bicyclist traffic deaths than the United States on average. In 2013, 21 pedestrians were killed in vehicle collisions, the highest since 2001,[340] which is 2.5 deaths per 100,000 population – 70% higher than the national average of 1.5.[341]

Cycling is becoming increasingly popular in the city. Annual bicycle counts conducted by the Municipal Transportation Agency (MTA) in 2010 showed the number of cyclists at 33 locations had increased 58% from the 2006 baseline counts.[342] In 2008, the MTA estimated that about 128,000 trips were made by bicycle each day in the city, or 6% of total trips.[343] As of 2019, 2.6% of the city's streets have protected bike lanes, with 28 miles of protected bike lanes in the city.[313] Since 2006, San Francisco has received a Bicycle Friendly Community status of "Gold" from the League of American Bicyclists.[344]

Law enforcement[edit]

The San Francisco Police Department was founded in 1849.[345] The portions of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area located within the city, including the Presidio and Ocean Beach, are patrolled by the United States Park Police.

The San Francisco Fire Department provides both fire suppression and emergency medical services to the city.[346]

The city operates 22 public "pit stop" toilets.[163]

Needle exchange[edit]

To prevent the spread of diseases from needles, the city gives away 400,000 free syringes every month. Only 60% are ever returned. Some end up as potentially dangerous litter.[347]

Nicknames[edit]

San Francisco has several nicknames, including "The City by the Bay", "Golden Gate City",[348] "Frisco", "SF", "San Fran", and "Fog City"; as well as older ones like "The City that Knows How", "Baghdad by the Bay", "The Paris of the West", or, as locals call it, "The City".[1] "San Fran" and "Frisco" are controversial as nicknames among San Francisco residents.[349][350][351]

Sister cities[edit]

San Francisco participates in the Sister Cities program.[352] A total of 41 consulates general and 23 honorary consulates have offices in the San Francisco Bay Area.[353]

See also[edit]

  • California earthquake forecast
  • Gold Mountain (Chinese name for part of North America)
  • List of cities and towns in California
  • List of cities and towns in the San Francisco Bay Area
  • List of counties in California
  • List of people from San Francisco
  • Northern California Megaregion
  • San Francisco English
  • Ships lost in San Francisco

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Station currently at the United States Mint building[105][self-published source?]
  2. ^ The coordinates of the station are 37°46′14″N 122°25′37″W / 37.7706°N 122.4269°W / 37.7706; -122.4269. Precipitation, high temperature, low temperature, snow, and snow depth records date from 1 October 1849, 1 June 1874, 1 January 1875, 1 January 1876, and 1 January 1922, respectively.
  3. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.

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Bibliography[edit]

  • De La Perouse, Jean Francois; Yamane, Linda Gonsalves; Margolin, Malcolm (1989). Life in a California Mission: Monterey in 1786: The Journals of Jean Francois De La Perouse. Heyday Books. ISBN 978-0-930588-39-7. OCLC 20368802.
  • Hansen, Gladys (1995). San Francisco Almanac: Everything you want to know about the city. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-0841-5. OCLC 30702907.
  • London, Jack (May 5, 1906). "The Story of an Eyewitness by Jack London". Collier's, the National Weekly.
  • Richards, Rand (1991). Historic San Francisco: A Concise History and Guide. Heritage House. ISBN 978-1-879367-00-5. OCLC 214330849.
  • Ungaretti, Lorri (2005). San Francisco's Richmond District. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-3053-6. OCLC 62249656.
  • Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-19120-9. OCLC 44313415.

Further reading[edit]

  • Asbury, Hubert (1989). The Barbary Coast: An Informal History of the San Francisco Underworld. Dorset Press. ISBN 978-0-88029-428-7. OCLC 22719465.
  • Bronson, William (2006). The Earth Shook, the Sky Burned. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-5047-6. OCLC 65223734.
  • Cassady, Stephen (1987). Spanning the Gate. Square Books. ISBN 978-0-916290-36-8. OCLC 15229396.
  • Dillon, Richard H. (1998). High Steel: Building the Bridges Across San Francisco Bay. Celestial Arts (Reissue edition). ISBN 978-0-88029-428-7. OCLC 22719465.
  • Eldredge, Zoeth Skinner (1912). The Beginnings of San Francisco: from the Expedition of Anza, 1774, to the City Charter of April 15, 1850. New York: John C. Rankin Company.
  • Ferlinghetti, Lawrence (1980). Literary San Francisco: A pictorial history from its beginnings to the present day. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-250325-1. OCLC 6683688.
  • Hartman, Chester (2002). City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08605-0. OCLC 48579085.
  • Heller, Nathan. Bay Watched – How San Francisco's New Entrepreneurial Culture is Changing the Country (article) (October 2013). The New Yorker
  • Holliday, J. S. (1999). Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-21402-6. OCLC 37545551.
  • Lotchin, Roger W. (1997). San Francisco, 1846–1856: From Hamlet to City. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06631-3. OCLC 35650934.
  • Margolin, Malcolm (1981). The Ohlone Way: Indian Life in the San Francisco-Monterey Bay Area. Heydey Books. ISBN 978-0-930588-01-4. OCLC 4628382.
  • Maupin, Armistead (1978). Tales of the City. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-096404-7. OCLC 29847673.
  • Solnit, Rebecca. Infinite City: A San Francisco Atlas (University of California Press, 2010). 144 pp. ISBN 978-0-520-26250-8; online review
  • Thomas, Gordon & Witts, Max Morgan (1971). The San Francisco Earthquake. Stein and Day. ISBN 978-0-8128-1360-9. OCLC 154735.
  • Winfield, P.H., The Charter of San Francisco (The fortnightly review Vol. 157–58:2 (1945), p. 69–75)
  • San Francisco (article) (1870) The Overland Monthly, January 1870 Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 9–23. San Francisco: A. Roman & Co., Publishers

External links[edit]

  • Official website
  • Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco