Cardiff ( / / ; Welsh : Caerdydd [kairˈdiːð, kaːɨrˈdɨːð] ( escuchar ) ) es la ciudad capital de Gales y un condado. Oficialmente conocida como la ciudad y condado de Cardiff , es laundécima ciudad más grandedel Reino Unido y el principal centro comercial de Gales. Cardiff es la base del Senedd (Parlamento de Gales) , la mayoría de las instituciones culturales nacionales y los medios de comunicación galeses. En el censo de 2011, lapoblación del área de autoridad unitaria se estimó en 346 090,  y el área urbana en general 479,000.  En 2011, Cardiff ocupó el sexto lugar del mundo en la revista National Geographic.Listado de destinos turísticos alternativos.  Cardiff es el destino turístico más popular de Gales con 21,3 millones de visitantes en 2017. 
|Ciudad y condado de Cardiff |
Dinas a Sir Caerdydd
Escudo de armas
|Lema (s): |
"Y ddraig goch ddyry cychwyn"
("El dragón rojo liderará el camino")
Ciudad y condado de Cardiff
y ubicación en Gales
Ubicación dentro de Gales
Ubicación dentro del Reino Unido
Ubicación dentro de Europa
|Coordenadas: Coordenadas :|
|Estado soberano||Reino Unido|
|Condado ceremonial||South Glamorgan|
|Gobierno local||Ayuntamiento de Cardiff|
|Estado de la ciudad||1905|
|• Líder del Consejo de Cardiff||Huw Thomas|
|• Parlamento de Gales|
|• Parlamento del Reino Unido|
|• Ciudad capital y área principal||140,3 km 2 (54,2 millas cuadradas)|
|• Urbano||75,72 km 2 (29,24 millas cuadradas)|
|• Ciudad capital y área principal||366,903 ( 1er puesto ) de la Oficina de Estadísticas Nacionales|
|• Urbano||479.000 |
|• Metro||1.097.000 ( Valles de Cardiff-Gales del Sur )|
|Zona horaria||UTC0 ( GMT )|
|• Verano ( DST )||UTC + 1 ( BST )|
|Código (s) de área||029|
|Códigos de área del vehículo||CA, CB, CC, CD, CE, CF, CG, CH, CJ, CK, CL, CM, CN, CO|
|Fuerza policial||ballenas del sur|
|Servicio de Bomberos||ballenas del sur|
|Servicio de ambulancia||galés|
|Aeropuerto principal||Aeropuerto de Cardiff|
(censo de 2011) 
|PIB||36 000 millones de dólares EE.UU. |
|PIB per cápita||29 674 $ EE.UU. |
|Sitio web||www |
Cardiff es la capital del condado del condado histórico de Glamorgan , y, entre 1974 y 1996, South Glamorgan . Cardiff forma parte de la red Eurocities de las ciudades europeas más grandes.  Una pequeña ciudad hasta principios del siglo XIX, su prominencia como un puerto importante para el transporte de carbón tras la llegada de la industria a la región contribuyó a su ascenso como una ciudad importante. En 1905, Cardiff se convirtió en ciudad y se proclamó capital de Gales en 1955. En el censo de 2011, la población era de 346.100. El área construida de Cardiff cubre un área un poco más grande fuera de los límites del condado e incluye las ciudades de Dinas Powys y Penarth .
Desde la década de 1980, Cardiff ha experimentado un desarrollo significativo. Una nueva zona frente al mar en la bahía de Cardiff contiene el edificio Senedd (el Parlamento de Gales) y el complejo artístico Wales Millennium Centre . Los desarrollos actuales incluyen la continuación de la remodelación de las áreas de Cardiff Bay y el centro de la ciudad con proyectos como el Cardiff International Sports Village , el pueblo drama de la BBC ,  y una nueva zona de negocios en el centro de la ciudad.  Entre las instalaciones deportivas de la ciudad se incluyen el Principado Stadium , el estadio nacional y sede de la selección nacional de rugby de Gales , Sophia Gardens (sede del Glamorgan County Cricket Club ), el Cardiff City Stadium (sede del equipo de fútbol de Cardiff City y el equipo de fútbol de Gales ), el Cardiff International Sports Stadium (el hogar del Cardiff Amateur Athletic Club ), el Cardiff Arms Park (el hogar de los equipos de rugby Cardiff Blues y Cardiff RFC ) y el Ice Arena Wales (el hogar del equipo de hockey sobre hielo Cardiff Devils ). La ciudad fue sede de los Juegos del Imperio Británico y de la Commonwealth de 1958 . Cardiff fue galardonada como Ciudad Europea del Deporte debido a su papel en la organización de importantes eventos deportivos internacionales en 2009 y nuevamente en 2014.  El Estadio del Principado albergó 11 partidos de fútbol como parte de los Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 2012 , incluido el evento inaugural de los juegos y el partido por la medalla de bronce masculina. 
Caerdydd (el nombre galés de la ciudad) deriva del galés medio Caerdyf . El cambio de -dyf a -dydd muestra la alteración coloquial del galés f [v] y dd [ð] , y quizás también fue impulsado por la etimología popular ( dydd significa "día" en galés, mientras que * dyf no tiene un significado obvio). Este cambio de sonido probablemente se había producido por primera vez en la Edad Media ; ambas formas eran corrientes en el período Tudor . Caerdyf tiene sus orígenes enpalabras Brythonic post-romanas que significan "el fuerte del Taff ". El fuerte probablemente se refiere al establecido por los romanos . Caer en galés significa fuerte y -dyf es en efecto una forma de Taf (Taff), el río que fluye por el castillo de Cardiff, con la ⟨t⟩ mostrando una mutación consonante a ⟨d⟩ y la vocal mostrando afecto como resultado de una ( perdido)final de caso genitivo . 
El anticuario William Camden (1551-1623) sugirió que el nombre Cardiff puede derivar de * Caer-Didi ("el Fuerte de Didio"), un nombre supuestamente dado en honor a Aulus Didius Gallus , gobernador de una provincia cercana en el momento en que se estableció el fuerte romano. Aunque algunas fuentes repiten esta teoría, ha sido rechazada por motivos lingüísticos por académicos modernos como el profesor Gwynedd Pierce. 
Evidencia arqueológica de sitios en Cardiff y sus alrededores: la cámara funeraria de St Lythans cerca de Wenvoe , (aproximadamente 4 millas (6,4 km) al oeste del centro de la ciudad de Cardiff); la cámara funeraria de Tinkinswood , cerca de San Nicolás (a unas 6 millas (9,7 km) al oeste del centro de la ciudad de Cardiff), la tumba con cámara Cae'rarfau , Creigiau (a unas 6 millas (9,7 km) al noroeste del centro de la ciudad de Cardiff) y el Gwern y Cleppa Long Barrow, cerca de Coedkernew , Newport (a unas 8 millas (13 km) al noreste del centro de la ciudad de Cardiff), todos muestran que la gente se había asentado en el área al menos alrededor del 6000 aC, durante el Neolítico temprano; unos 1.500 años antes de que se completara Stonehenge o la Gran Pirámide de Giza .      Un grupo de cinco túmulos de la Edad del Bronce se encuentra en la cima del Garth (en galés : Mynydd y Garth ), dentro del límite norte del condado.  Se han identificado cuatro fuertes de la Edad del Hierro y sitios de recintos dentro de los límites del condado actual de Cardiff, incluido Caerau Hillfort , un área cerrada de 5,1 hectáreas (13 acres).    
Hasta la conquista romana de Gran Bretaña , Cardiff era parte del territorio de los Silures , una tribu celta británica que floreció en la Edad del Hierro , cuyo territorio incluía las áreas que se conocerían como Breconshire , Monmouthshire y Glamorgan.  El fuerte de 3,2 hectáreas (8 acres) establecido por los romanos cerca de la desembocadura del río Taff en el año 75 d. C., en lo que se convertiría en el límite noroeste del centro de Cardiff, se construyó sobre un extenso asentamiento que había fue establecido por los romanos en los años 50 d.C.  El fuerte era uno de una serie de puestos de avanzada militares asociados con Isca Augusta ( Caerleon ) que actuaban como defensas fronterizas. Es posible que el fuerte haya sido abandonado a principios del siglo II, ya que el área había sido sometida. Sin embargo, en ese momento se estableció un asentamiento civil, o vicus . Probablemente estaba formado por comerciantes que se ganaban la vida con el fuerte, ex soldados y sus familias. Se ha descubierto una villa romana en Ely .  Contemporáneo de los fuertes de la costa sajona de los siglos III y IV, se estableció una fortaleza de piedra en Cardiff. Al igual que los fuertes de la costa, la fortaleza se construyó para proteger a Britannia de los asaltantes.  Monedas del reinado de Graciano indican que Cardiff estuvo habitada al menos hasta el siglo IV; el fuerte fue abandonado a finales del siglo IV, cuando las últimas legiones romanas abandonaron la provincia de Britannia con Magnus Maximus .  
Poco se sabe sobre la fortaleza y el asentamiento civil en el período comprendido entre la salida romana de Gran Bretaña y la conquista normanda. El asentamiento probablemente se redujo en tamaño e incluso pudo haber sido abandonado. En ausencia del dominio romano, Gales se dividió en pequeños reinos; Al principio, Meurig ap Tewdrig emergió como el rey local en Glywysing (que más tarde se convirtió en Glamorgan ). El área pasó por su familia hasta la llegada de los normandos en el siglo XI. 
Ocupación normanda hasta la Edad Media
En 1081, Guillermo I, rey de Inglaterra , comenzó a trabajar en el torreón del castillo dentro de los muros del antiguo fuerte romano.  El castillo de Cardiff ha estado en el corazón de la ciudad desde entonces.  El castillo fue sustancialmente alterado y ampliado durante el período victoriano por John Crichton-Stuart, tercer marqués de Bute , y el arquitecto William Burges . Sin embargo, todavía se puede distinguir la obra romana original en los revestimientos de las paredes.
Una ciudad creció a la sombra del castillo, compuesta principalmente por colonos de Inglaterra.  Cardiff tenía una población de entre 1.500 y 2.000 habitantes en la Edad Media; un tamaño relativamente normal para una ciudad galesa en este período.  Fue el centro del señorío normanda de Glamorgan y, a finales del siglo XIII, Cardiff era la única ciudad de Gales con una población de más de 2.000 habitantes, aunque seguía siendo relativamente pequeña en comparación con las ciudades más notables de Inglaterra y continuó estando muy contenido dentro de sus muros, que comenzaron como una empalizada de madera a principios del siglo XII.   [ ¿Fuente confiable? ] Fue de suficiente tamaño e importancia para recibir una serie de cartas, especialmente en 1331 por William La Zouche, Lord de Glamorgan a través del matrimonio con la familia de Clare,  Eduardo III en 1359,  luego Enrique IV en 1400,  y más tarde Enrique VI.
En 1404, Owain Glyndŵr quemó Cardiff y tomó posesión del castillo.  Como muchos edificios de la ciudad estaban hechos de madera y estaban apiñados dentro de las murallas de la ciudad, gran parte de Cardiff fue destruida. Irónicamente, dado el tratamiento de Cardiff por Glyndŵr, cuya estatua fue erigida en el Ayuntamiento de Cardiff a principios del siglo XX, reflejando la identidad cultural compleja y a menudo conflictiva que Cardiff tiene como capital de Gales, la ciudad pronto fue reconstruida en el mismo plano de la calle y comenzó a florecer una vez más.  Además de desempeñar un papel político importante en el gobierno de la fértil llanura costera del sur de Glamorgan, Cardiff fue un puerto activo en la Edad Media y fue declarado puerto básico en 1327.
Ciudad del condado de Glamorganshire
En 1536, las Leyes de Gales 1535-1542 llevaron a la creación de Glamorganshire y Cardiff se convirtió en la ciudad del condado . También pasó a formar parte de Kibbor Cien . [ cita requerida ] Alrededor de este mismo tiempo, la familia Herbert se convirtió en la familia más poderosa de la zona.  En 1538, Enrique VIII clausuró los conventos dominicos y franciscanos de Cardiff, cuyos restos se utilizaron como material de construcción.  Un escritor de este período describió Cardiff: "El río Taff corre bajo los muros de su castillo de honor y desde la parte norte de la ciudad hasta la parte sur, donde hay un muelle justo y un puerto seguro para el transporte marítimo". 
Cardiff se había convertido en un municipio libre [ aclaración necesaria ] en 1542  y Isabel I concedió más cartas reales a la ciudad en 1600  y James I en 1608.  En 1573, se convirtió en puerto principal. para la recaudación de derechos de aduana.  El historiador de Pembrokeshire George Owen describió a Cardiff en 1602 como "la ciudad más hermosa de Gales, pero no la más acogedora",  y la ciudad obtuvo una segunda Carta Real en 1608. 
Una desastrosa inundación del canal de Bristol el 30 de enero de 1607 (ahora se cree que fue un tsunami )  provocó un cambio en el curso del río Taff y la ruina de la iglesia parroquial de Santa María , que fue reemplazada por su capilla de tranquilidad, San Juan Bautista. 
Durante la Segunda Guerra Civil Inglesa, St Fagans , justo al oeste de la ciudad, fue sede de la Batalla de St Fagans . La batalla, entre los rebeldes realistas y un destacamento del Ejército del Nuevo Modelo , fue una victoria decisiva para los parlamentarios y permitió a Oliver Cromwell conquistar Gales.  Fue la última gran batalla en Gales, con cerca de 200 soldados (en su mayoría realistas) muertos. 
Cardiff estuvo en paz durante todo el siglo siguiente. En 1766, John Stuart, primer marqués de Bute se casó con un miembro de la familia Herbert y más tarde fue nombrado barón de Cardiff .  En 1778, comenzó a renovar el castillo de Cardiff.  [ ¿Fuente confiable? ] Un hipódromo , una imprenta , un banco y una cafetería se abrieron en la década de 1790 y Cardiff consiguió un servicio de diligencia a Londres. A pesar de estas mejoras, la posición de Cardiff en la jerarquía urbana de Gales había declinado durante el siglo XVIII. Iolo Morganwg lo llamó "un lugar oscuro e insignificante", y el censo de 1801 encontró que la población era de solo 1.870, lo que convierte a Cardiff en la 25ª ciudad más grande de Gales, muy por detrás de Merthyr y Swansea . 
Construcción de los muelles
En 1793, nació John Crichton-Stuart, segundo marqués de Bute . Pasaría su vida construyendo los muelles de Cardiff y más tarde sería llamado "el creador del Cardiff moderno".  Un servicio de barco dos veces por semana entre Cardiff y Bristol se estableció en 1815,  y en 1821, se estableció Cardiff Gas Works. 
La ciudad creció rápidamente a partir de la década de 1830, cuando el marqués de Bute construyó un muelle , que finalmente se unió al ferrocarril Taff Vale . Cardiff se convirtió en el principal puerto de exportación de carbón de los valles de Cynon , Rhondda y Rhymney , y creció a una tasa de casi el 80% por década entre 1840 y 1870. Gran parte del crecimiento se debió a la migración desde dentro y fuera de Gales: en En 1841, una cuarta parte de la población de Cardiff nació en Inglaterra y más del 10% había nacido en Irlanda.  En el censo de 1881, Cardiff había superado tanto a Merthyr como a Swansea para convertirse en la ciudad más grande de Gales.  El nuevo estatus de Cardiff como la principal ciudad de Gales del Sur se confirmó cuando fue elegida como sede del University College of South Wales y Monmouthshire en 1883. 
Cardiff enfrentó un desafío en la década de 1880 cuando David Davies de Llandinam y Barry Railway Company promovieron el desarrollo de muelles rivales en Barry . Los muelles de Barry tenían la ventaja de ser accesibles en todas las mareas , y David Davies afirmó que su empresa haría que "la hierba creciera en las calles de Cardiff". A partir de 1901, las exportaciones de carbón de Barry superaron a las de Cardiff, pero la administración del comercio del carbón se mantuvo centrada en Cardiff, en particular en su Coal Exchange , donde se determinó el precio del carbón en el mercado británico y se alcanzó el primer acuerdo de un millón de libras en 1907.  La ciudad también reforzó su base industrial con la decisión de los propietarios de Dowlais Ironworks en Merthyr (que más tarde formaría parte de Guest, Keen y Nettlefolds ) de construir una nueva acería cerca de los muelles en East Moors, que Lord Bute abrió el 4 de febrero de 1891. 
Municipio del condado de Cardiff
Cardiff se convirtió en un municipio del condado el 1 de abril de 1889 en virtud de la Ley de Gobierno Local de 1888 . La ciudad había crecido rápidamente y tenía una población de más de 123.000 habitantes. Cardiff conservó su condición de municipio de condado hasta 1974. 
Estado de la ciudad y la capital
El rey Eduardo VII concedió el estatus de ciudad de Cardiff el 28 de octubre de 1905,  y la ciudad adquirió una catedral católica romana en 1916. Más tarde, más instituciones nacionales llegaron a la ciudad, incluido el Museo Nacional de Gales , el Monumento Nacional de Guerra de Gales y el edificio del registro de la Universidad de Gales . Pero se le negó la Biblioteca Nacional de Gales , en parte porque el fundador de la biblioteca, Sir John Williams, consideró que Cardiff tenía "una población no galesa". 
Después de un breve boom de posguerra, los muelles de Cardiff entraron en un declive prolongado en el período de entreguerras . En 1936, su comercio era menos de la mitad de su valor en 1913, lo que refleja la caída de la demanda de carbón galés .  Los daños causados por las bombas durante el bombardeo de Cardiff en la Segunda Guerra Mundial incluyeron la devastación de la catedral de Llandaff , y en los años inmediatos de la posguerra el vínculo de la ciudad con la familia Bute llegó a su fin.
La ciudad fue reconocida como la capital de Gales el 20 de diciembre de 1955, en una respuesta escrita del ministro del Interior, Gwilym Lloyd George .  Caernarfon también había competido por este título.  Las autoridades locales galesas estaban divididas sobre la ubicación de una nueva capital de Gales: sólo 76 de 161 eligieron Cardiff en una encuesta de 1924 organizada por el South Wales Daily News .  Debido a las opiniones divididas, el tema no se volvió a debatir hasta 1950, y Cardiff tomó medidas para promover su "galés". El estancamiento entre Cardiff y ciudades como Caernarfon y Aberystwyth no se rompió hasta que el Consejo del Condado de Cardiganshire decidió apoyar a Cardiff; y en una nueva votación de la autoridad local, 134 de 161 votaron por Cardiff. 
Cardiff, por lo tanto, celebró dos aniversarios importantes en 2005. La Enciclopedia de Gales señala que la decisión de reconocer la ciudad como la capital de Gales "tuvo más que ver con el hecho de que contenía distritos conservadores marginales que con cualquier visión razonada de lo que funciona como una capital galesa. debería tener". Aunque la ciudad fue sede de los Juegos de la Commonwealth en 1958, Cardiff solo se convirtió en un centro de administración nacional con el establecimiento de la Oficina de Gales en 1964, que más tarde impulsó la creación de varios otros organismos públicos, como el Consejo de las Artes de Gales y la Agencia de Desarrollo de Gales. , la mayoría de los cuales tenían su sede en Cardiff.
East Moors Steelworks cerró en 1978 y Cardiff perdió población durante la década de 1980,  en consonancia con un patrón más amplio de contraurbanización en Gran Bretaña. Sin embargo, se recuperó y fue una de las pocas ciudades (fuera de Londres) donde la población creció durante la década de 1990.  Durante este período, la Corporación de Desarrollo de la Bahía de Cardiff promovió la remodelación del sur de Cardiff; una evaluación de la regeneración de la bahía de Cardiff publicada en 2004 concluyó que el proyecto había "reforzado la posición competitiva de Cardiff" y "contribuido a una mejora masiva de la calidad del entorno construido", aunque no había logrado "atraer a las principales atracciones hacia el interior". los inversores anticiparon originalmente ". 
En el referéndum de devolución de Gales de 1997 , los votantes de Cardiff rechazaron el establecimiento de la Asamblea Nacional de Gales en un 55,4% a un 44,2% con una participación del 47%, que Denis Balsom atribuyó en parte a una preferencia general en Cardiff y algunas otras partes de Gales por un ' Identidad británica 'en lugar de exclusivamente ' galesa ' .   La relativa falta de apoyo a la Asamblea localmente y las dificultades entre la Oficina de Gales y el Consejo de Cardiff para adquirir el lugar preferido original, el Ayuntamiento de Cardiff , animaron a otras autoridades locales a presentar una oferta para albergar la Asamblea.   Sin embargo, la Asamblea finalmente se ubicó en Tŷ Hywel en la bahía de Cardiff en 1999; en 2005 , se abrió una nueva cámara de debate en un sitio adyacente, diseñado por Richard Rogers .
Senedd Cymru (el Parlamento de Gales) tiene su sede en la Bahía de Cardiff desde su formación en 1999 como Asamblea Nacional de Gales. El edificio Senedd fue inaugurado el 1 de marzo de 2006 por The Queen .  Los miembros de Senedd Cymru (MS) , la Comisión Senedd y el personal de apoyo ministerial tienen su sede en la bahía de Cardiff. Cardiff elige a cuatro miembros de Senedd (MS) para el Senedd; los distritos electorales del Senedd son los mismos que los del Parlamento del Reino Unido. Todos los electores de la ciudad tienen un voto adicional para los miembros regionales de South Wales Central ; este sistema aumenta la proporcionalidad al Senedd. Las elecciones generales de Senedd más recientes se celebraron el 5 de mayo de 2016 .
En el Senedd Cardiff está representado por Jenny Rathbone (Laborista) en Cardiff Central , Julie Morgan (Labor) en Cardiff North , Vaughan Gething (Labor) en Cardiff South y Penarth y el Primer Ministro de Gales Mark Drakeford (Labor) en Cardiff West .
En Westminster, Cardiff está representada por cuatro diputados laboristas: Jo Stevens en Cardiff Central , Anna McMorrin en Cardiff North , Stephen Doughty en Cardiff South y Penarth , y Kevin Brennan en Cardiff West .
El Gobierno de Gales tiene su sede en Cardiff's Cathays Park, donde se encuentran la mayoría de sus funcionarios públicos, con un número menor en otras ubicaciones en el centro de la ciudad , Cathays , Canton y Cardiff Bay .  Hay otras oficinas del Gobierno de Gales en otras partes de Gales, como Llandudno y Aberystwyth, y también hay oficinas internacionales. 
Entre 1889 y 1974 Cardiff era una ciudad del condado gobernado por Cardiff County Borough Council (conocido como el Ayuntamiento de Cardiff después de 1905). Entre 1974 y 1996, Cardiff fue gobernado por el Ayuntamiento de Cardiff , un consejo de distrito de South Glamorgan . Desde la reorganización del gobierno local en 1996 , Cardiff ha sido gobernado por el Ayuntamiento de Cardiff, que tiene su sede en County Hall en Atlantic Wharf, Cardiff Bay. Los votantes eligen 75 concejales cada cuatro años.
Entre las elecciones locales de 2004 y 2012, ningún partido político obtuvo la mayoría en el consejo del condado de Cardiff. Los Demócratas Liberales ocupaban el mayor número de escaños y el Cllr Rodney Berman era el líder del Consejo.  Los Demócratas Liberales y Plaid Cymru formaron una administración de asociación.  En las elecciones de 2012, el Partido Laborista logró una mayoría absoluta, después de obtener 33 escaños adicionales en toda la ciudad.
Cardiff está dividido en comunidades. Varios de ellos tienen su propio consejo comunitario , mientras que el resto se rige únicamente por el Ayuntamiento de Cardiff. Las elecciones se celebran cada cinco años. Las últimas elecciones impugnadas se habrían celebrado al mismo tiempo que las elecciones del Consejo de Cardiff de 2017 , si hubiera habido más candidatos que escaños disponibles. Los que tienen consejos comunitarios son:
El centro de Cardiff es relativamente plano y está delimitado por colinas en las afueras al este, norte y oeste. Su ubicación influyó en su desarrollo como el puerto de carbón más grande del mundo, sobre todo su proximidad y fácil acceso a los campos de carbón de los valles de Gales del Sur . El punto más alto en el área de la autoridad local es Garth Hill , 307 metros (1,007 pies) sobre el nivel del mar .
Cardiff está construido sobre un pantano recuperado sobre un lecho de piedras del Triásico ; esta zona pantanosa recuperada se extiende desde Chepstow hasta el estuario de Ely ,  que es el límite natural de Cardiff y el valle de Glamorgan. Los paisajes triásicos de esta parte del mundo suelen ser poco profundos y bajos, en consonancia con la llanura del centro de Cardiff.  Las margas clásicas del Triásico , la arena y las rocas conglomeradas se utilizan predominantemente en todo Cardiff como materiales de construcción. Muchas de estas rocas del Triásico son violáceas, especialmente la marga costera que se encuentra cerca de Penarth. Una de las rocas del Triásico que se utilizan en Cardiff es "Radyr Stone", una piedra de piedra que, como su nombre indica, se extrae en el distrito de Radyr.  Cardiff también ha importado algunos materiales para la construcción: se han utilizado areniscas del Devónico (la antigua arenisca roja ) de Brecon Beacons . Lo más famoso es que los edificios de Cathays Park , el centro cívico en el centro de la ciudad, están construidos con piedra de Portland de Dorset.  Una piedra de construcción ampliamente utilizada en Cardiff es la piedra caliza Liassic amarillo-gris del Valle de Glamorgan, incluida la muy rara "Sutton Stone", un conglomerado de piedra caliza lias y piedra caliza carbonífera . 
Cardiff limita al oeste con el distrito rural de Vale of Glamorgan, también conocido como The Garden of Cardiff;  al este con la ciudad de Newport; al norte por los valles de Gales del Sur ; y al sur por el estuario del Severn y el canal de Bristol . El río Taff atraviesa el centro de la ciudad y, junto con el río Ely, desemboca en el lago de agua dulce de la bahía de Cardiff. Un tercer río, el Rhymney , atraviesa el este de la ciudad directamente hacia el estuario del Severn.
Cardiff está situado cerca de Glamorgan Heritage Coast , que se extiende hacia el oeste desde Penarth y Barry, ciudades de cercanías de Cardiff, con acantilados de piedra caliza jurásica a rayas de color amarillo azulado . La costa de Glamorgan es la única parte del Mar Céltico que ha expuesto la geología jurásica ( lias azules ). Este tramo de costa, que tiene arrecifes, bancos de arena y acantilados serrados, fue un cementerio de barcos ; muchos barcos que navegaban hacia Cardiff durante la era industrial naufragaron alrededor de esta costa hostil durante los vendavales del oeste / suroeste. También eran habituales el contrabando, los naufragios deliberados y los ataques a barcos. 
"Inner Cardiff" consists of the following wards: Plasnewydd, Gabalfa, Roath, Cathays, Adamsdown and Splott ward on the north and east of the city centre, and Butetown, Grangetown, Riverside and Canton to the south and west. The inner-city areas to the south of the A4161 road (known as the "Southern Arc") are, with the exception of Cardiff Bay, some of the poorest districts of Wales with low levels of economic activity. On the other hand, Gabalfa, Plasnewydd and Cathays north of the 'arc' have very large student populations, and Pontcanna (situated north of Riverside and alongside Canton) is a favourite for students and young professionals. Penylan, which lies to the north east side of Roath Park, is an affluent area popular with those with older children and the retired.
To the west lie Ely, Caerau and Fairwater which contain some of the largest housing estates in the United Kingdom. With the exception of some of the outlying privately built estates at Michaelston-super-Ely and 1930s developments near Waun-Gron Road, this is an economically disadvantaged area with high numbers of unemployed households. Culverhouse Cross is a more affluent western area of the city. Heath, Birchgrove, Gabalfa, Mynachdy, Llandaff North, Llandaff, Llanishen, Radyr, Whitchurch & Tongwynlais, Rhiwbina, Thornhill, Lisvane and Cyncoed lie in an arc from the northwest to the northeast of the centre. Lisvane, Cyncoed, Radyr and Rhiwbina contain some of the most expensive housing in Wales.
Further to the east lie the wards of Pontprennau & Old St Mellons, Rumney, Pentwyn, Llanrumney, Llanedeyrn and Trowbridge. The last four are again largely of public housing stock, although a large amount of new private housing is being built in Trowbridge. Pontprennau is the newest 'suburb' of Cardiff, whilst Old St Mellons has a history going back to the Norman Conquest in the 11th century. The region that may be called "Rural Cardiff" contains the villages of St. Fagans, Creigiau, Pentyrch, Tongwynlais and Gwaelod-y-garth. In 2017, plans were approved to create a new suburb of 7,000 homes between Radyr and St Fagans; known as Plasdŵr. St. Fagans, home to the Museum of Welsh Life, is protected from further development.
Since 2000, there has been a significant change of scale and building height in Cardiff, with the development of the city centre's first purpose-built high-rise apartments. Tall buildings have been built in the city centre and Cardiff Bay, and more are planned.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Cardiff lies within the north temperate zone and has a maritime climate (Köppen: Cfb), characterised by mild weather that is often cloudy, wet and windy. Summers tend to be warm and sunny, with average maximum temperatures between 19 and 22 °C (66 and 72 °F). Winters tend to be fairly wet, but rainfall is rarely excessive and the temperature usually stays above freezing. Spring and autumn feel quite similar and the temperatures tend to stay above 14 °C (57 °F) – also the average annual daytime temperature. Rain is unpredictable at any time of year, although the showers tend to be shorter in summer.
Cardiff's maximum and minimum monthly temperatures average 21.5 °C (70.7 °F) (July) and 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) (February).
For Wales, the temperatures average 19.1 °C (66.4 °F) (July) and 1.1 °C (34.0 °F) (February).
Cardiff has 1518 hours of sunshine during an average year (Wales 1388.7 hours). Cardiff is sunniest during July, with an average 203.4 hours during the month (Wales 183.3 hours), and least sunny during December with 44.6 hours (Wales 38.5 hours).
Cardiff experiences less rainfall than the average for Wales. Rain falls in Cardiff on 146 days during an average year, with total annual rainfall of 1,151.9 millimetres (45.35 in). Monthly rainfall pattern shows that from October to January average monthly rainfall in Cardiff exceeded 100 millimetres (3.9 in) each month, the wettest month being December with 125.3 millimetres (4.93 in). Cardiff's driest months are from April to June, with average monthly rainfall fairly consistent, at between 65 and 75 millimetres (2.6 and 3.0 in).
|Record high °C (°F)||15.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.3|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||2.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||−16.1|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||121.6|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||15.7||11.1||13.0||11.1||11.2||10.1||10.7||11.0||11.0||15.5||14.5||13.9||148.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||54.4||75.9||111.9||169.6||190.6||190.0||199.0||190.7||149.6||103.0||65.8||48.9||1,549.4|
|Source 1: Met Office|
|Source 2: KNMI|
|Source: Vision of Britain except 2011, which is the 2011 census data from the Office for National Statistics. Historical populations are calculated with the modern boundaries|
After a period of decline during the 1970s and 1980s, Cardiff's population is growing. The local authority area had a population of 346,100 at the 2011 census, compared to a 2001 census figure of 305,353. Between mid−2007 and mid–2008, Cardiff was the fastest-growing local authority in Wales, with population growth of 1.2%. According to 2001 census data, Cardiff was the 21st largest urban area. The Cardiff Larger Urban Zone (a Eurostat definition including the Vale of Glamorgan and a number of local authorities in the Valleys) has 841,600 people, the 10th largest LUZ in the UK. The Cardiff and South Wales Valleys metropolitan area has a population of nearly 1.1 million people.
Official census estimates of the city's total population have been disputed. The city council published two articles that argued that the 2001 census seriously under-reported the population of Cardiff and, in particular, the ethnic minority population of some inner city areas.
The Welsh Government's official mid year estimate of the population of the Cardiff local authority area in 2017 was 362,756. At the 2011 census the official population of the Cardiff Built Up Area (BUA) was estimated to be 447,287. The BUA is not contiguous with the local authority boundary and aggregates data at a lower level; for Cardiff this includes: urban part of Cardiff, Penarth/Dinas Powys, Caerphilly and Pontypridd.
Cardiff has an ethnically diverse population due to its past trading connections, post-war immigration and the large numbers of foreign students who attend university in the city. The ethnic make-up of Cardiff's population at the 2011 census was: 84.7% White, 1.6% mixed White and Black African/Caribbean, 0.7% mixed White and Asian, 0.6% mixed other, 8.1% Asian, 2.4% Black, 1.4% Arab and 0.6% other ethnic groups. This means that almost 53,000 people from a non-white ethnic group reside in the city. This diversity, and especially that of the city's long-established African and Arab communities, has been celebrated in a number of cultural exhibitions and events, along with a number of books which have been published on this subject.
There are seven NHS hospitals in the city, the largest of which is the University Hospital of Wales. This is the third largest hospital in the UK and deals with most accidents and emergencies. The University Dental Hospital, which provides emergency dental treatment, is also located on this site. Llandough Hospital is located in the south of the city.
St. David's Hospital, the city's newest hospital, built behind the former building, is located in Canton and provides services for the elderly and children. Cardiff Royal Infirmary is on Newport Road, near the city centre. The majority of this hospital was closed in 1999, but the west wing remained open for clinic services, genitourinary medicine and rehabilitation treatment. Rookwood Hospital and the Velindre Cancer Centre are also located within Cardiff. They are administered by the Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, with the exception of Velindre, which is run by a separate trust. Spire Healthcare, a private hospital, is in Pontprennau.
Cardiff has a chequered linguistic history with Welsh, English, Latin, Norse and Norman French preponderant at different times. Welsh was the majority language in Cardiff from the 13th century until the city's explosive growth in the Victorian era. As late as 1850, five of the 12 Anglican churches within the current city boundaries conducted their services exclusively in the Welsh language, while only two worshipped exclusively in English. By 1891, the percentage of Welsh speakers had dropped to 27.9% and only Lisvane, Llanedeyrn and Creigiau remained as majority Welsh-speaking communities. The Welsh language became grouped around a small cluster of chapels and churches, the most notable of which is Tabernacl in the city centre, one of four UK churches chosen to hold official services to commemorate the new millennium.
The city's first Welsh-language school (Ysgol Gymraeg Bryntaf) was established in the 1950s, and Welsh has since regained ground. Aided by Welsh-medium education and migration from other parts of Wales, there are now many more Welsh speakers: their numbers doubled between the 1991 and 2011 censuses, from 18,071 (6.6%) to 36,735 (11.1%) residents aged three years and above. The LSOA (Lower Layer Super Output Area) with the highest percentage of Welsh speakers in the city centre is found in Canton, at 25.5%. The LSOA with the highest percentage of Welsh speakers in the whole of Cardiff is Whitchurch, at 26%.
Cardiff City Council adopted a five-year Welsh language strategy in 2017 aiming to increase the number of Welsh speakers (aged 3+) in Cardiff by 15.9%, from 36,735 in 2011 to 42,584 residents by the 2021 Census. The ONS estimated that as of June 2018, 75,600 (21.8%) of Cardiff's population could speak Welsh.
In addition to English and Welsh, the diversity of Cardiff's population (including foreign students) means that many other languages are spoken in the city. One study has found that Cardiff has speakers of at least 94 languages, with Somali, Urdu, Bengali and Arabic being the most commonly-spoken foreign languages.
The modern Cardiff accent is distinct from that of the nearby South Wales Valleys. It is marked primarily by:
- The substitution of ⟨iə⟩ by ⟨jøː⟩
- here [hiːə] pronounced as [(h)jøː] in the broader form[clarification needed]
- The vowel of start may be realised as [æː] or even [ɛː], so that Cardiff is pronounced [ˈkæːdɪf].
Due to its diversity and large student population, more people now come to the city to learn English. Foreign students coming from Arab states and other European countries are a common sight on the streets of Cardiff. The British Council has an office in the city centre and there are six accredited schools in the area.
Since 1922, Cardiff has included Llandaff within its boundary, and therefore Llandaff Cathedral, an Anglican cathedral, the parish church of Llandaff and the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff, the head of the Church in Wales Diocese of Llandaff.
There is a Roman Catholic cathedral in the city. Since 1916, Cardiff has been the seat of a Catholic archbishop, but there appears to have been a fall in the estimated Catholic population, with estimated numbers in 2006 being around 25,000 fewer than in 1980. Likewise, the Jewish population of the city also appears to have fallen – there are two synagogues in Cardiff, one in Cyncoed and one in Moira Terrace, as opposed to seven at the turn of the 20th century. There are a significant number of nonconformist chapels, an early 20th century Greek Orthodox church and 11 mosques. In the 2001 census, 66.9% of Cardiff's population described itself as Christian, a percentage point below the Welsh and UK averages.
The oldest of the non-Christian communities in Wales is Judaism. Jews were not permitted to live in England and Wales between the 1290 Edict of Expulsion – given by Edward I of England – and the 17th century. A Welsh Jewish community was re-established in the 18th century. There was once a fairly substantial Jewish population in South Wales, most of which has disappeared. The Orthodox Jewish community congregations are consolidated in the Cardiff United Synagogue in Cyncoed, which was dedicated by Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks in 2003. The Cardiff Reform Synagogue is in Adamsdown.
Cardiff's Muslim population is significantly above the Welsh average. Cardiff has one of the longest-established Muslim populations in the UK, started by Yemeni and Somali sailors settling during the 19th century. Cardiff has over 11,000 Muslims from many different nationalities; nearly 52% of the Welsh Muslim population.
The proportion of Cardiff residents declaring themselves to be Hindu, Sikh and Jewish were all considerably higher than the Welsh averages, but less than the UK figures. The city has had a Hindu community since Indian immigrants settled during the 1950s and 1960s. The first Hindu temple in the city was opened in Grangetown on 6 April 1979 on the site of an abandoned synagogue. The 25th anniversary of the founding was celebrated in September 2007 with a parade of over 3,000 people through the city centre, including Hindus from across the United Kingdom and members of Cardiff's other religious communities. There are over 2,000 Hindus in Cardiff, worshiping at three temples.
In the 2001 census 18.8% of the city's population stated they had no religion, while 8.6% did not state a religion.
As the capital city of Wales, Cardiff is the main engine of growth in the Welsh economy. Though the population of Cardiff is about 10% of the Welsh population, the economy of Cardiff makes up nearly 20% of Welsh GDP and 40% of the city's workforce are daily in-commuters from the surrounding south Wales area.
Industry has played a major part in Cardiff's development for many centuries. The main catalyst for its transformation from a small town into a big city was the demand for coal required in making iron and later steel, brought to the sea by packhorse from Merthyr Tydfil. This was first achieved by the construction of a 25-mile (40 km) long canal from Merthyr (510 feet above sea-level) to the Taff Estuary at Cardiff. Eventually the Taff Vale Railway replaced the canal barges and massive marshalling yards sprang up as new docks were developed in Cardiff – all prompted by the soaring worldwide demand for coal from the South Wales valleys. At its peak, Cardiff's port area, known as Tiger Bay, became the busiest port in the world and – for some time – the world's most important coal port. In the years leading up to the First World War, more than 10 million tonnes of coal was exported annually from Cardiff Docks. In 1907, Cardiff's Coal Exchange was the first host to a business deal for a million pounds Sterling. After a period of decline, Cardiff's port has started to grow again – over 3 million tonnes of cargo passed through the docks in 2007.
Today, Cardiff is the principal finance and business services centre in Wales, and as such there is a strong representation of finance and business services in the local economy. This sector, combined with the Public Administration, Education and Health sectors, have accounted for around 75% of Cardiff's economic growth since 1991. The city was recently placed seventh overall in the top 50 European cities in the fDI 2008 Cities of the Future list published by the fDi magazine, and also ranked seventh in terms of attracting foreign investment. Notable companies such as Legal & General, Admiral Insurance, HBOS, Zurich, ING Direct, The AA, Principality Building Society, 118118, British Gas, Brains, SWALEC Energy and BT, all operate large national or regional headquarters and contact centres in the city, some of them based in Cardiff's office towers such as Capital Tower and Brunel House. Other major employers include NHS Wales and the Senedd Cymru. On 1 March 2004, Cardiff was granted Fairtrade City status.
Cardiff is one of the most popular tourist destination cities in the United Kingdom, receiving 18.3 million visitors in 2010 and generating £852 million for the city's economy. One result of this is that one in five employees in Cardiff is based in the distribution, hotels and restaurants sector, highlighting the growing retail and tourism industries in the city. There are a large number of hotels of varying sizes and standards in the city, providing almost 9,000 available bed spaces.
Cardiff is home to the Welsh media and a large media sector with BBC Wales, S4C and ITV Wales all having studios in the city. In particular, there is a large independent TV production industry sector of over 600 companies, employing around 6000 employees and with a turnover estimated at £350 m. Just to the north west of the city, in Rhondda Cynon Taff, the first completely new film studios in the UK for 30 years are being built, named Valleywood. The studios are set to be the biggest in the UK. In 2011 the BBC completed the Roath Lock studios in Cardiff Bay to film dramas such as Casualty, Doctor Who, and Pobol y Cwm.
Cardiff has several regeneration projects such as the St David's 2 Centre and surrounding areas of the city centre, and the £1.4 billion International Sports Village in Cardiff Bay which played a part in the London 2012 Olympics. It features the only Olympic-standard swimming pool in Wales, the Cardiff International Pool, which opened on 12 January 2008.
According to the Welsh Rugby Union, the Principality Stadium has contributed £1 billion to the Welsh economy in the ten years after it opened in 1999, with around 85% of that amount staying in the Cardiff area.
The majority of Cardiff's shopping portfolio is in the city centre around Queen Street, St Mary Street and High Street, with large suburban retail parks located in Cardiff Bay, Culverhouse Cross, Leckwith, Newport Road and Pontprennau, together with markets in the city centre and Splott. A major £675 million regeneration programme for Cardiff's St. David's Centre was completed in 2009, which has provided a total of 1,400,000 square feet (130,000 m2) of shopping space, making it one of the largest shopping centres in the United Kingdom. The centre was named the international shopping centre of the year in 2010 by Retail Leisure International (RLI).
The Castle Quarter is a commercial area in the north of the city centre which includes some of Cardiff's Victorian and Edwardian arcades: Castle Arcade, High Street Arcade and Duke Street Arcade, and principal shopping streets: St Mary Street, High Street, The Hayes, Castle Street and Duke Street. Development of the area began in February 2010 and is expected to be completed by July 2011. Cardiff Council says that work to create the Castle Quarter as a pedestrian friendly environment for High Street and St Mary Street is designed to enhance the city centre.
Cardiff Central railway station is the largest railway station in Wales with nine platforms, through which over 12.5 million passengers a year pass. It provides direct services to Bridgend and Newport; long-distance, cross-Wales services to Wrexham, Holyhead, Bristol, Birmingham, Manchester and London.
Cardiff Queen Street railway station is the second-busiest in Wales and is the hub for routes via the Valley Lines services that connect the South Wales Valleys and the Cardiff suburbs with the city centre on the former site of Temperance Town. It is located at the eastern end of the city centre, and also provides services to Cardiff Bay. Cardiff has a suburban rail system known as the Valleys & Cardiff Local Routes, which is operated by Transport for Wales. There are eight lines which serve 20 stations in the city, 26 in the wider urban area (including Taffs Well, Penarth and Dinas Powys) and more than 60 in the South Wales valleys and the Vale of Glamorgan.
Domestic and international air links to Cardiff and South & West Wales are provided from Cardiff Airport (CWL), the only international airport in Wales. The airport is situated in the village of Rhoose, 10 miles (16 km) west of the city. There are regular bus services linking the airport with the Cardiff Central bus station as well as a train service from Rhoose Cardiff International Airport railway station to Cardiff Central.
Road and bus
The M4 motorway connects Cardiff with Swansea to the west, and Newport and London to the east, with four junctions on the M4 including the one with the A48(M). The A470 provides an important link from the city to the Heads of the Valleys road. When completed, the A4232—also known as the Peripheral Distributor Road— will form part of the Cardiff ring-road system along with the M4 motorway between junctions 30 and 33.
Cardiff has a comprehensive bus network, with providers including municipal bus company Cardiff Bus (routes within the city and to Newport, Barry and Penarth), NAT Group (cross-city and to Cardiff Airport), Stagecoach South Wales (to the South Wales Valleys) and First Cymru (to Cowbridge and Bridgend). National Express and Megabus provides direct services to major cities such as Bristol, London, Newcastle upon Tyne and Manchester
The Taff Trail is a walking and cycle path running for 55 miles (88.5 km) between Cardiff Bay and Brecon in the Brecon Beacons National Park. It runs through Bute Park, Sophia Gardens and many other green areas within Cardiff. It is possible to cycle the entire distance of the Trail almost completely off-road, as it largely follows the River Taff and many of the old disused railways of the Glamorganshire valleys. On Sundays in summer the Beacons Bike Bus enables cyclists to take their bikes into the Beacons and then ride back to Cardiff along the Trail.
The Aquabus water taxi runs every hour between the city centre (Taff Mead Embankment) and Cardiff Bay (Mermaid Quay), and between Cardiff Bay and Penarth Cardiff Bay Barrage. Throughout the year, Cardiff Waterbus sail between the Pierhead on The Waterfront and the Penarth end of the Cardiff Bay Barrage with short sightseeing cruises.
Between March and October boats depart from Cardiff Bay to take visitors to Flat Holm Island. The PS Waverley and MV Balmoral sail from Britannia Quay (in Roath Basin) to various destinations in the Bristol Channel.
029 is the current telephone dialling code for Cardiff, as well as for the neighbouring towns of Penarth, Dinas Powys and Caerphilly. The dialling code is optional when dialling within the area: one can dial between any two phones within the 029 code using only the eight-digit local number.
Prior to the Big Number Change on 22 April 2000 the area had shorter, six-digit local numbers with an area code of 01222. This was 0222 before May 1995, derived from 0 (indicating it was a trunk call) 22 (CA on a telephone pad, for CArdiff) and 2 (as 220 was used for CAmbridge and 221 for BAth). Before the introduction of automated trunk call dialling, non-local numbers were accessed through a system of manual telephone exchanges, in common with rest if the United Kingdom.
There remains a common misconception that local numbers are still six digits long and that the code is 02920, even though there are newer Cardiff numbers in the ranges (029) 21xx xxxx and (029) 22xx xxxx.
Cardiff University was founded by a royal charter in 1883 as the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, is a member of the Russell Group of leading research led universities, having most of its campus in Cathays and the city centre. Cardiff Metropolitan University (formerly UWIC) has campuses in the Llandaff, Cyncoed and city centre areas, and is part of the confederal University of Wales. The Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama is a conservatoire established in 1949 and is based in the grounds of Cardiff Castle. The University of South Wales's Cardiff campus, Atrium, is home to the Cardiff School of Creative & Cultural Industries and is located in the city centre.
The total number of higher education students in the city is around 43,900. The city also has two further education colleges: Cardiff and Vale College and St David's College. The former is the result of a merger, completed in August 2011, between Coleg Glan Hafren and Barry College. Further education is also offered at most high schools in the city.
Cardiff has three state nursery schools (one bilingual), 98 state primary schools (two bilingual, fifteen Welsh medium), and 19 state secondary schools (three Welsh medium). There are also a number of independent schools in the city, including St John's College, Llandaff Cathedral School, Cardiff Sixth Form College, Kings Monkton School and Howell's School, a single-sex girls' school (until sixth form). In 2013 Cardiff Sixth Form College came top of the independent senior schools in the UK, which were based on the percentage of A* and A at Advanced Level. Also in the top 100 were St John's College and Howell's School.
Notable schools include Whitchurch High School (the largest secondary school in Wales), Fitzalan High School (which is one of the most multi-cultural state schools in the UK), and Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf (the largest Welsh medium secondary school in Wales).
As well as academic institutions, Cardiff is also home to other educational and learning organisations such as Techniquest, a hands-on science discovery centre that now has franchises throughout Wales, and is part of the Wales Gene Park in collaboration with Cardiff University, NHS Wales and the Welsh Development Agency (WDA). Cardiff is also home of the largest regional office of the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO). This office is home to the organisation's curriculum and assessment centre, which is responsible for overseeing the creation and grading of various IBDP assessments.
Monumentos y atracciones
Cardiff has many landmark buildings such as the Principality Stadium, Pierhead Building the Welsh National Museum and the Senedd building, the home of the Welsh Parliament. Cardiff is also famous for Cardiff Castle, St David's Hall, Llandaff Cathedral and the Wales Millennium Centre.
Cardiff Castle is a major tourist attraction in the city and is situated in the heart of the city centre. The National History Museum at St Fagans in Cardiff is a large open-air museum housing dozens of buildings from throughout Welsh history that have been moved to the site in Cardiff. The Civic Centre in Cathays Park comprises a collection of Edwardian buildings such as the City Hall, National Museum and Gallery of Wales, Cardiff Crown Court, and buildings forming part of Cardiff University, together with more modern civic buildings. These buildings are laid out around the Queen Alexandra Gardens, a formal park which contains the Welsh National War Memorial and a number of other, smaller, memorials.
In addition to Cardiff Castle, Castell Coch (Red Castle) is located in Tongwynlais, in the north of the city. The current castle is an elaborately decorated Victorian folly designed by William Burges for the Marquess and built in the 1870s, as an occasional retreat. However, the Victorian castle stands on the footings of a much older medieval castle possibly built by Ifor Bach, a regional baron with links to Cardiff Castle also. The exterior has become a popular location for film and television productions. It rarely fulfilled its intended role as a retreat for the Butes, who seldom stayed there. For the Marquess, the pleasure had been in its creation, a pleasure lost following Burges's death in 1881.
Cardiff claims to have the largest concentration of castles of any city in the world. As well as Cardiff Castle and Castell Coch, there are the remains of two Motte and Bailey castles in Radyr and Rhiwbina (both known as the "Twmpath", a Welsh word for a small mound), which along with a castle at Whitchurch (known as Treoda and destroyed by housing in the 1960s) formed an arc of fortifications which divided the Norman lordship from the Welsh lordship of Senghenydd. Further up the Cefn Cibwr ridge on the boundary with Caerphilly there is also another ruined castle, known as Castell Morgraig. Archaeological evidence suggests this castle was never finished, and it is debated whether the fortification was of Norman or Welsh origin. The concentration of these castles is indicative of the moveable nature of the border between the Norman lordship of Glamorgan, centred at Cardiff, and its Welsh neighbours to the north.
While not strictly castles in the historic sense, there is also the ruined Llandaff Bishop's Palace, a fortified residence belonging to the Bishops of Llandaff and Saint Fagans Castle, a preserved seventeenth century manor house, once the seat of the Earls of Plymouth.
Other major tourist attractions are the Cardiff Bay regeneration sites which include the recently opened Wales Millennium Centre and the Senedd, and many other cultural and sites of interest including the Cardiff Bay Barrage and the famous Coal Exchange. The New Theatre was founded in 1906 and completely refurbished in the 1980s. Until the opening of the Wales Millennium Centre in 2004, it was the premier venue in Wales for touring theatre and dance companies. Other venues which are popular for concerts and sporting events include Motorpoint Arena, St David's Hall and the Principality Stadium. Cardiff Story, a museum documenting the city's history, has been open to the public since spring 2011.
Cardiff has over 1,000 listed buildings, ranging from the more prominent buildings such as the castles, to smaller buildings, houses and structures. Cathedral Road was developed by the 3rd Marquis of Bute and is lined by fine villas, some backing on to Sophia Gardens.
Cardiff has walks of special interest for tourists and ramblers alike, such as the Centenary Walk, which runs for 2.3 miles (3.7 km) within Cardiff city centre. This route passes through many of Cardiff's landmarks and historic buildings. The Animal Wall, designed by William Burges in 1866, marks the south edge of Bute Park on Castle Street. It bears 15 carved animal statues.
Cultura y recreación
Cardiff has many cultural sites varying from the historical Cardiff Castle and out of town Castell Coch to the more modern Wales Millennium Centre and Cardiff Bay. Cardiff was a finalist in the European Capital of Culture 2008. In recent years Cardiff has grown in stature as a tourist destination, with recent accolades including Cardiff being voted the eighth favourite UK city by readers of the Guardian. The city was also listed as one of the top 10 destinations in the UK on the official British tourist boards website Visit Britain, and US travel guide Frommers have listed Cardiff as one of 13 top destinations worldwide for 2008. Annual events in Cardiff that have become regular appearances in Cardiff's calendar include Sparks in the Park, The Great British Cheese Festival, Cardiff Mardi Gras, Cardiff Winter Wonderland, Cardiff Festival and Made in Roath.
Music and performing arts
A large number of concerts are held within the city, the larger ones being performed in St David's Hall, the Motorpoint Arena (previously known as the Cardiff International Arena) and occasionally the Principality Stadium. A number of festivals are also held in Cardiff—the largest of these is the Cardiff Big Weekend Festival, which is held annually in the city centre during the summer and plays host to free musical performances (from artists such as Ash, Jimmy Cliff, Cerys Matthews, the Fun Loving Criminals, Soul II Soul and the Magic Numbers), fairground rides and cultural events such as a Children's Festival that takes place in the grounds of Cardiff Castle. The annual festival claims to be the UK's largest free outdoor festival, attracting over 250,000 visitors in 2007.
Cardiff hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1883, 1899, 1938, 1960, 1978, 2008 and 2018. Cardiff is unique in Wales in having two permanent stone circles used by the Gorsedd of Bards during Eisteddfodau. The original circle stands in Gorsedd Gardens in front of the National Museum while its 1978 replacement is situated in Bute Park. Since 1983, Cardiff has hosted the BBC Cardiff Singer of the World competition, a world-renowned event on the opera calendar which is held every two years. The city also hosts smaller events.
A number of performing arts venues are located within the city. The largest and most prominent of these is the Wales Millennium Centre, which hosts performances of opera, ballet, dance, comedy and musicals, and (as of autumn 2008) is home to the BBC National Orchestra of Wales. St David's Hall (which hosts the Singer of the World competition) has regular performances of classical music and ballet as well as music of other genres. The largest of Cardiff's theatres is the New Theatre, situated in the city centre just off Queen Street. Other such venues include the Sherman Theatre, Chapter Arts Centre and the Gate Arts Centre.
The Cardiff music scene is established and wide-ranging: home to the BBC National Orchestra of Wales and the Welsh National Opera; has produced several leading acts; has acted as a springboard for Welsh bands to become famous. Acts hailing from Cardiff include Charlotte Church, Shirley Bassey, Iwan Rheon, the Oppressed, Kids In Glass Houses, Los Campesinos, the Hot Puppies, the School, We're No Heroes, Budgie and Shakin' Stevens. Also, performers such as the Automatic, Manic Street Preachers, Lostprophets, Super Furry Animals, Catatonia and Bullet for My Valentine have links with the city and are associated with the Cardiff music scene. In 2010, Cardiff was named the UK's second 'most musical' city by PRS for Music.
Cardiff has held a photomarathon in the city each year since 2004, in which photographers compete to take the best 12 pictures of 12 previously unknown topics in 12 hours. An exhibition of the winners and other entries is held in June / July each year.
Cardiff has a strong nightlife. Most clubs and bars are situated in the city centre, especially St. Mary Street, and more recently Cardiff Bay has built up a strong night scene, with many modern bars & restaurants. The Brewery Quarter on St. Mary Street is a recently developed venue for bars and restaurant with a central courtyard. Charles Street is also a popular part of the city.
Cardiff is known for its extensive parks and other green spaces covering around 10% of the city's total area. Cardiff's main park, Bute Park (which was formerly the castle grounds) extends northwards from the top of one of Cardiff's main shopping street (Queen Street); when combined with the adjacent Llandaff Fields and Pontcanna Fields to the north west it produces a massive open space skirting the River Taff. Other popular parks include Roath Park in the north, donated to the city by the 3rd Marquess of Bute in 1887 and which includes a very popular boating lake; Victoria Park, Cardiff's first official park; and Thompson's Park, formerly home to an aviary removed in the 1970s. Wild open spaces include Howardian Local Nature Reserve, 32 acres (130,000 m2) of the lower Rhymney valley in Penylan noted for its Orchids, and Forest Farm Country Park, over 150 acres (0.61 km2) along the river Taff in Whitchurch.
Cardiff is one of the top ten retail destinations in the UK with Queen Street and St. Mary Street as the two main shopping streets with the three shopping arcades, St. David's Centre, Queens Arcade and the Capitol Centre. The current expansion of St. David's Centre as part of the St. David's 2 project has made it one of the largest shopping centres in the UK. As well as the modern shopping arcades, the city is home to Victorian shopping centres, such as High Street Arcade, Castle Arcade, Wyndham Arcade, Royal Arcade and Morgan Arcade. Also of note is The Hayes, home to Spillers Records, the world's oldest record shop. Cardiff has a number of markets, including the vast Victorian indoor Cardiff Central Market and the newly established Riverside Community Market, which specialises in locally produced organic produce. Several out-of-town retail parks exist, such as Newport Road, Culverhouse Cross, Cardiff Gate and Cardiff Bay.
Medios de comunicación
Cardiff is the Welsh base for the main national broadcasters (BBC Cymru Wales, ITV Wales and S4C). A locally based television station, Made in Cardiff, is also based in the city centre. Major filming studios in Cardiff include the BBC's Roath Lock Studios and Pinewood Studios Wales.
Several contemporary television programmes and films are filmed in and/or set in Cardiff such as Casualty, Doctor Who, Merlin, The Sarah Jane Adventures, Torchwood, The Valleys, Upstairs Downstairs and Sherlock.
Capital Times, Echo Extra and the South Wales edition of Metro are also based and distributed in the city. There are also a number of magazines based in the city including Primary Times and a monthly papur bro, or Welsh-language community newsletter, called Y Dinesydd (The Citizen). A number of radio stations serve the city and are based in Cardiff, including Capital FM (South Wales), Heart (South and West Wales), BBC Radio Wales, BBC Radio Cymru, Nation Radio, Radio Cardiff, Smooth Radio (Wales) and Xpress Radio.
Cardiff plays host to many high-profile sporting events at local, national and international level and in recognition of the city's commitment to sport for all Cardiff has been awarded the title of European Capital of Sport 2014. Organised sports have been held in the city since the early 19th century. national home sporting fixtures are nearly always played in the city. All Wales' multi-sports agencies and many of the country's sports governing bodies have their headquarters in Cardiff and the city's many top quality venues have attracted world-famous sports events, sometimes unrelated to Cardiff or to Wales. In 2008/09, 61% of Cardiff residents regularly participated in sport and active recreation, the highest percentage out of all 22 local authorities in Wales.
Rugby union fans around the world have long been familiar with the old National Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park, and its successor the Principality Stadium, which hosted the FA Cup for six years (from 2001 to 2006) it took to rebuild Wembley Stadium. In 2009, Cardiff hosted the first Ashes cricket test, between England and Australia, to be held in Wales. Cardiff hosted eight football matches of the London 2012 Olympics.
Cardiff City F.C. (founded 1899 as Riverside AFC) played their home games at Ninian Park from 1910 until the end of the 2008–09 season. The club's new home is the Cardiff City Stadium, which they initially rented to the Cardiff Blues, the city's professional rugby union team, the Blues returning to the Arms Park in 2012. Cardiff City have played in the English Football League since the 1920–21 season, climbing to Division 1 after one season. Cardiff City are the only non-English team to have won the FA Cup, beating Arsenal in the 1927 final at Wembley Stadium. They were runners up to Portsmouth in the 2008 final, losing 1–0 at the new Wembley Stadium. In the 2013/14 and 2018/19 seasons Cardiff City played in the English Premier League.
Cardiff Metropolitan University F.C. of the Athletic Union of Cardiff Metropolitan University, based in Cyncoed, play in the Cymru Premier, having been promoted from Welsh League Division One in 2016. They were winners of the Welsh League Cup for the 2018–19 season.  Cardiff has numerous smaller clubs including Bridgend Street A.F.C., Caerau (Ely) A.F.C., Cardiff Corinthians F.C., Cardiff Grange Harlequins A.F.C., and Ely Rangers A.F.C. who all play in the Welsh football league system.
In addition to men's football teams Cardiff City Ladies of the FA Women's Premier League Southern Division are based in the city. Teams in the Welsh Premier Women's Football League are Cardiff Met. Ladies, Cyncoed Ladies and Cardiff City.
During the 1990s, London-based football club Wimbledon FC expressed interest in relocating to Cardiff, having been without a home of their own since exiting Plough Lane stadium in 1991 and sharing with Crystal Palace FC at Selhurst Park. The relocation of the club to Cardiff did not happen; in 2003, the club moved to Milton Keynes and a year later rebranded as Milton Keynes Dons.
Cardiff Arms Park (Welsh: Parc yr Arfau Caerdydd), in central Cardiff, is among the world's most famous venues—being the scene of three Welsh Grand Slams in the 1970s (1971, 1976 and 1978) and six Five Nations titles in nine years—and was the venue for Wales' games in the 1991 Rugby World Cup. The Arms Park has a sporting history dating back to at least the 1850s, when Cardiff Cricket Club (formed 1819) relocated to the site. The ground was donated to Cardiff CC in 1867 by the Marquess of Bute. Cardiff Cricket Club shared the ground with Cardiff Rugby Football Club (founded 1876) —forming Cardiff Athletic Club between them—until 1966, when the cricket section moved to Sophia Gardens. Cardiff Athletic Club and the Welsh Rugby Union established two stadia on the site—Cardiff RFC played at their stadium at the northern end of the site, and the Wales national rugby union team played international matches at the National Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park, which opened in 1970. The National Stadium was replaced by the 74,500 capacity Millennium Stadium (Welsh: Stadiwm y Mileniwm) in 1999—in time for the 1999 Rugby World Cup—and is home stadium to the Wales national rugby and football teams for international matches. In addition to Wales' Six Nations Championship and other international games, the Principality Stadium held four matches in the 2007 Rugby World Cup and six FA Cup finals (from the 2001–02 to 2005–06 seasons) while Wembley Stadium was being rebuilt.
Cardiff Cricket Club were formed in 1819, and Glamorgan County Cricket Club have competed as a first class county since 1921. Their headquarters and ground is the SWALEC Stadium, Sophia Gardens, since moving from Cardiff Arms Park in 1966. The Sophia Gardens stadium underwent a multimillion-pound improvement since being selected to host the first ‘England’ v Australia Test Match of the 2009 Ashes series.
Cardiff has a long association with boxing, from 'Peerless' Jim Driscoll—born in Cardiff in 1880—to more recent, high-profile fights staged in the city. These include the WBC Lennox Lewis vs. Frank Bruno heavyweight championship fight at the Arms Park in 1993, and many of Joe Calzaghe's fights, between 2003 and 2007.
Cardiff's professional ice hockey team, the Cardiff Devils, play in the 3000-seater Ice Arena Wales in the Cardiff International Sports Village. They play in the 12 team professional Elite Ice Hockey League. Founded in 1986, and one of the most successful British teams during the nineties.
Cardiff's only American flag football team are the Hurricanes. They won the British Championship in 2014 after falling short by 2 points in a quarter final to eventual winners, the London Rebels the previous year. They are based out of Roath Recreational Ground.
The 1958 Commonwealth Games were hosted by Cardiff. The Games involved 1,130 athletes from 35 national teams competing in 94 events. One of the venues for those Games—The Wales Empire Swimming Pool—was demolished in 1998 to make way for the Principality Stadium. The GBP32m Cardiff International Pool in Cardiff Bay, opened to the public on 12 January 2008—part of the GBP1bn International Sports Village (ISV)—is the only Olympic-standard swimming pool in Wales. When complete, the ISV complex will provide Olympic standard facilities for sports including boxing and fencing, gymnastics, judo, white water events (including canoeing and kayaking) and wrestling as well as a snow dome with real snow for skiing and snowboarding, an arena for public ice skating and ice hockey and an hotel. Some of the sports facilities at the ISV were to be used as training venues for the London 2012 Olympics.
The Principality Stadium hosts motorsport events such as the World Rally Championship, as part of Wales Rally GB. The first indoor special stages of the World Rally Championship were held at the Principality Stadium in September 2005 and have been an annual event since. The British Speedway Grand Prix, one of the World Championship events, is held at the Millennium Stadium. While the track—a temporary, purpose built, shale oval—is not universally loved, the venue is considered the best of the World Championship's 11 rounds.
The Cardiff International Sports Stadium, opened 19 January 2009, replacing the Cardiff Athletics Stadium; demolished to make way for the Cardiff City Stadium was a 4,953 capacity, multi sport/special event venue, offering fully certificated international track and field athletics facilities, including an international standard external throws area. The stadium houses the Headquarters of Welsh Athletics, the sport's governing body for Wales. The city's indoor track and field athletics sports venue is the National Indoor Athletics Centre, an international athletics and multi sports centre at the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff Campus, Cyncoed.
Many notable people have hailed from Cardiff, ranging from historical figures such as the 12th-century Welsh leader Ifor Bach and to more recent figures such as Roald Dahl, Ken Follett, Griff Rhys Jones and the former Blue Peter presenter Gethin Jones.
The notable actors of Cardiff include Ioan Gruffudd (notable performances are film roles such as Lancelot in King Arthur (2004), Mister Fantastic (Reed Richards) in Fantastic 4 (2005) and its sequel Fantastic 4: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007)) and Iwan Rheon.
Also notable is Siân Grigg, BAFTA winner and Oscar nominated Hollywood make up artist.
In particular, the city has been the birthplace of sports stars such as Tanni Grey-Thompson and Colin Jackson as well as many Premier League, Football League and international footballers, such as Craig Bellamy, Gareth Bale, Ryan Giggs, Joe Ledley, and former managers of the Wales national football team Terry Yorath and John Toshack. International rugby league players from Cardiff include Frank Whitcombe, Billy Boston, David Willicombe and Colin Dixon. International Rugby Union Jamie Roberts, Jamie Robinson, Nicky Robinson, Rhys Patchell, and baseball internationals include George Whitcombe and Ted Peterson.
Saint Teilo (c. 500 – 9 February c. 560) is the patron saint of Cardiff. He was a British Christian monk, bishop, and founder of monasteries and churches. Reputed to be a cousin, friend, and disciple of Saint David, he was bishop of Llandaff and founder of the first church at Llandaff Cathedral, where his tomb is. His Saint's Day is the ninth of February.
Cardiff is also well known for its musicians. Ivor Novello inspired the Ivor Novello Awards. Idloes Owen, founder of the Welsh National Opera, lived in Llandaff. Dame Shirley Bassey was born and raised in Cardiff. Charlotte Church is famous as a crossover classical/pop singer. Shakin' Stevens was one of the top-selling male artists in the UK during the 1980s. Tigertailz, a popular glam metal act in the 80s, also hailed from Cardiff. A number of Cardiff-based bands, such as Catatonia and Super Furry Animals were popular during the 1990s.
- Luhansk, Ukraine
- Hordaland county, Norway
- Sucre, Bolivia
- Nantes, France
- Stuttgart, Germany
- Xiamen, China
- Lima, Peru
A total of 28 countries have a diplomatic presence in Cardiff. Many of these nations, such as Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, Thailand and the Czech Republic are represented by honorary consulates. The British Embassy of the United States operates a satellite office.
Libertad de la Ciudad
The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Cardiff.
[What is the significance of the dates?]
- Alderman Andrew Fulton: 31 March 1886.
- Lord Pontypridd : 13 August 1888.
- William Ewart Gladstone : 6 July 1889.
- Duke of Clarence and Avondale: 17 September 1890.
- Sir Henry Morton Stanley : 27 March 1891.
- Sir David Evans : 1 July 1892.
- Field Marshal Lord Roberts of Kandahar : 26 January 1894.
- Sir Edward Reed : 28 September 1895.
- Prince of Wales: 27 June 1896.
- Lord Plymouth : 3 June 1897.
- David Jones : 18 April 1898.
- Field Marshal Lord Kitchener : 2 December 1897.
- Lieutenant General Lord Baden-Powell : 29 May 1903.
- Lord Merthyr of Senghenydd : 10 March 1905.
- Prince of Wales: 29 June 1905.
- David Lloyd George : 24 June 1908.
- Lord Tredegar: 25 October 1909.
- Alderman Francis John Beavan : 10 October 1910.
- Charles Thompson, Esquire of Penhill Close, Llandaff: 28 October 1912.
- Sir William James Thomas: 12 April 1915.
- William Morris Hughes : 24 March 1916.
- Lord Rhondda : 27 October 1916.
- William Massey : 8 May 1917.
- Field Marshal Jan Smuts : 27 October 1917.
- Sir Robert Borden : 24 July 1918.
- Maharaja Sir Bhupinder Singh of Patiala: 24 July 1918.
- Prince of Wales: 26 June 1919.
- Joseph Larke Wheasley : 13 October 1919.
- Sir Charles Hayward Bird : 5 July 1923.
- Duke of York: 22 October 1926.
- Lord Glanely : 26 March 1928.
- Sir William Reardon Smith : 26 March 1928.
- Alderman Herbert Metford Thompson : 14 April 1930.
- Lord Davies of Llandinam : 26 October 1931.
- Alderman Sir Illtyd Thomas : 26 October 1931.
- Duke of Kent: 25 October 1932.
- Lord Sankey : 5 March 1934.
- Sir Goscombe John : 26 October 1936.
- Lord Plymouth : 26 October 1936.
- Lord Nuffield : 15 October 1937.
- Lord Portal of Laverstoke : 15 October 1937.
- Alderman F.H. Turnbull : 10 February 1947.
- Alderman R.G. Hill-Snook: 10 February 1947.
- Duchess of Edinburgh: 27 May 1948.
- Sir Winston Churchill : 16 July 1948.
- Alderman Sir William Richard Williams : 11 May 1954.
- Alderman Sir Herbert Hiles : 11 May 1954.
- Duke of Edinburgh: 1 December 1954.
- Major Lord Tenby of Bulford : 26 October 1956.
- Prince of Wales: 5 July 1969.
- Lord Callaghan of Cardiff : 16 March 1975.
- Lord Tonypandy : 16 March 1975.
- Princess of Wales: 29 October 1981.
- Pope John Paul II: 2 June 1982.
- Sir Cennydd Traherne : 29 January 1985.
- Philip Dunleavy : 25 January 1993.
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- Lord Cledwyn of Penrhos : 4 December 2000.
- Baroness Grey-Thompson : 27 November 2003.
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- Major Sir Tasker Watkins : 12 April 2006.
- Dame Shirley Bassey : 23 February 2012
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- The Welsh Guards: 27 April 1957.
- The Royal Regiment of Wales: 11 June 1969.
- The Royal Welch Fusiliers: 7 November 1973.
- The 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards: 29 July 1985.
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- The Merchant Navy Association (Wales): 3 September 2001.
- 203 (Welsh) Field Hospital (Volunteers) RAMC: 21 April 2014.
- HMS Dragon, RN: 18 May 2014.
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